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Acute Inflammation

    • Acute inflammation involves:
    • alteration of vascular caliber
      following very brief vasoconstriction (seconds), vasodilation leads to increased blood flow and blood pooling creating redness and warmth (rubor and calor)
    • changes of microvasculature
      increased permeability for plasma proteins and cells creating swelling (tumor). Fluid loss leads to concentration of red blood cells and slowed blood flow (stasis)
    • emigration of leukocytes from microcirculation
      due to stasis and activation leads migration towards offending agent


    • NADPH oxidase system, a membrane bound enzyme complex, reduces O2 to superoxide anion (02-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (OH) = Oxidative burst
    • H2O-MPO-halide system is thought to be the most efficient bactericidal system (in vitro!!) by catalyzing the formation of bleach (hypochlorous radical = HOCL.) from H2O2 and Cl- which kills bacteria by halogenation or protein and lipid peroxidation
    • Bacteriocidal and cell degrading enzyme contents of lysosomal granules (azurophil- and specific granules) fuse with phagosome to form phago-lysosome

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