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Anatomy of Apical Third

  • Achievement of a perfect seal at the apex using an inert filling material is the ultimate goal for every endodontist. The crux of endodontics revolves around the efficient and effective manipulation and obturation of the apical third of the root canal. The importance of a thorough cleaning and hermetic filling of the apical part of the canal for successful healing of the periapex was highlighted analogically as early as 1939 itself, by Kronfeld.
  • Appreciable knowledge of the morphology of this ‘small zone’ and its variance, ability  to interpret it correctly in radiograph, and to ‘feel’ it through tactile sensation during instrumentation are essential for an effective rendering of the treatment of root canals.


    • Because the adjacent walls of cementum are slightly convex or hyperbolic or funnel shaped when viewed in long section, the configuration of the area between the minor and major diameters resembles that of a morning glory of a flower.
    • Histological Development of Root Structures
    •   During tooth development, the inner and outer dental epithelium fuse to form the cervical loop, which invaginates into the underlying connective tissue.  The epithelial root sheath consists of inner and outer epithelial cells.  The inner epithelial cells form a filamentous layer which is associated with the basal lamina.

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