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  • Final steps to modern man ( 20 mil years )
  • Remarkable increase in brain size gave the forehead a more domed appearance
  • Folding of cerebral cortex
  • Bipedal walking
  • Use of hands for manipulation
  • Occipital ridges became small
  •     Face is the seat of principle sense organs
  • In lower vertebrates
  • No fully ossified skeleton
  • Jaw muscles are merely modified gill arch muscles
  • Teeth are specialisations of tough shagreen or skin with minute calcified papillae or denticles
  • In the amphibians
  • The bony plates behind the jaws have disappeared, leaving an exposed area –orbit notch

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