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indiandentalacademy

Copy of Localization methods

Location of impacted teeth Location of foreign objects Salivary gland calculi Location of root stumps In endodontics Location of anatomic structures (Mandibular canal, Floor of maxillary sinus, mental foramen) Location of sinus tract   An object whose position must be localized  should be   radiographed  with either an obvious reference …

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Copy of iaomr

Oro-facial manifestations are seen in 86% subjects with thalassemia major and 78% subjects with thalassemia intermedia. There is a definite relationship between the blood picture and the oro-facial features, thus showing a predictive value for the prognosis of the disease. 46% subjects’ parents gave a history of co-sanguinous marriages between …

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conventional versus digital

Loss of tooth structure Carious (occlusal, proximal) Non – carious (attrition, abrasion, erosion, fracture) Periodontal disease Endodontic disease Impacted teeth Trauma (root and alveolar fractures, foreign bodies) Other pathology affecting bone   In 1972 Godfrey Hounsefield announced the invention of revolutionary imaging technique which he called as computerized axial transverse …

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CONTRAST RADIOGRAPHY

Arthrography   of TM joint gives information of – soft tissue state of the TM joint – integrity  & position of the disk – posterior attachment of disk – internal disk derangement  – disk perforation – helps in differentiating disk derangement from other non bony problems like capsulitis , myofascitis & …

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CONTRAST RAD SEM (2)

Ideal requirements of Contrast Media: Safe to use and handle. Non-toxic. Should be removed from the body easily. Should be stable in the body and in storage. Should not have any side effects. Should not penetrate the Blood Brain Barrier.   Similarly, if there is a difference between the average …

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connective tissue disorders

Autoimmune disease characterized by production of numerous autoantibodies Lupus is the latin for wolf and erythematosus indicates red-like. Thus, LE stands for ”the red wolf”                              lupus vulgaris, ”the common wolf” which in the old days designated the skin of the face in patients with cutaneous tuberculosis. Organ injury – secondary …

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conference – Copy

Aspergillus is a Filamentous Fungus with Septate Hyphae, Uniform in diameter Dichotomous 450 Angle Branching  Reproduces as Asexual Conidia Spores (2-3µm)Transmitted by Air borne Conidia Hyphae Invade local Blood Vessels® Ischemic Tissue Necrosis & Bony Destruction Aspergillus often presents with Vague Complaints & -ve Clinical findings, making Diagnosis Difficult   …

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Computed tomography

OLENDROF and CORNMARK in 1963 understand the concept of  CT and built laboratory models.  At the annual congress of BRITISH INSTITUTE OF RADIOLOGY in April  1972 , G N HOUNSFIELD  a research scientist at  EMI  industries limited in MIDDLESEX  ENGLAND  announced revolutionary new imaging modality , which he called  Computerized …

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complex odontoma OOO

    PROVISINOL DIAGNOSIS                 IMPACTED TOOTH irt 48              DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS                     AMELOBLASTIC FIBROMA                     COMPLEX ODONTOMA INTRA  ORAL  EXAMINATION   HARD TISSUE EXAMINATION   SOFT TISSUE EXAMINATION  

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COMPARISON OF ULTRASOUND AND CT IMAGING

A Mittal, D Das, N Iyer, J Nagaraj , M Gupta. Masseter cysticercosis –        a  rare case diagnosed on ultrasound Dentomaxillofac. Radiol.,  February 1, 2008;  37(2): 113 – 116 5 .B . Subramanian, S Krishnaraj, K Agrawal.Cysticercosis of oral cavity. J Laryngol Otol 2008 ;122:1005-1007 6 .Vijayaraghvan SB. Sonographic appearances in cysticercosis. …

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Coagulation disorders

Secondary haemostasis (Coagulation of Blood)   The coagulation mechanism is one of the component of haemostatic mechanism.   It comprises three separate though related systems Coagulation system The coagulation inhibitory system Fibrinolytic system   Pathological disturbances may occur in any or more of these systems and lead to bleeding tendency …

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CLINICAL TRIALS

Types of studies History of clinical trials Types of trials Possible outcomes of clinical trial Phases of a clinical trial Rules to be followed to prevent bias in a clinical trial   Cross sectional studies/prevalence studies Simplest form of an observational study It is based on a single examination of …

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Chronic oral ulceration

NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL PROGRAMME (NTCP) DIRECT OBSERVATION ANTITUBERCULAR THERAPY (DOTS) DRUGS USED STEPTOMYCIN RIFAMPIN PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID ISONIAZID PYRAZINAMIDE ETHAMBUTOL EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF ORAL SOMETIMES GENERAL DISEASE REDUCING MORTALITY & MORBIDITY CONTACT TRACING & CONTROLLING THE SPREAD OF THE DISEASE

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Child abuse

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Sudden and unexplained death of an infant. It’s a frightening prospect because it can strike without warning, usually in seemingly healthy babies. Deaths are associated with sleep (“crib death”) and infants show no signs of suffering. Most SIDS deaths happen when babies are between 2 – …

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chemotheray for oral cancers

Dosage  and regimens HNSCC Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors Bcc , Malignant melanoma Leukemia, Lymphoma Multiple myeloma Sarcomas Novel approaches Targeted therapies   According to  mechanism of  ( anti cancer ) action  : Block nucleic acid biosynthesis : antimetabolites Direct influence the structure and function of  DNA : alkylating agents, platinum …

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Chemotherapy

CHEMOTHERAPY A. INTRODUCTION:- CHEMOTHERAPY:- Definition- Chemotherapy can be defined as treatment of disease by chemical agents. Principles- Enhance local regional control. Preservation of organ. Decrease distant metastasis. Improvement of over all survival. B. CELL CYCLE AND CANCER Many effective anti-cancer drugs exert their action on cells traversing the cell cycle- …

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Chemical Mediators of

  Inflammation is defined as a complex reaction to injurious agents such as microbes and damaged, usually necrotic, cells that consists of vascular responses, migration and activation of leukocytes, and systemic reactions   The Triple Response: SIR THOMAS LEWIS (1927), established the Concept that Histamine locally induced by injury mediate …

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cheiloscopy main

Cheiloscopy is derived from Greek words cheilos – lips and   e skopein – see Lips are unique to one person, except in monozygotic twins Lip grooves are permanent and unchangeable It is possible to identify lip patterns as early as the sixth week of intrauterine life Resist many afflictions, such …

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chandni

Elimination of risk factors Repair of ill fitting dentures Denture Hygiene -10- to 15-minute 1% sodium hypochlorite soak Palliative topical medications ( Antifungal, analgesics) Antibiotic coverage Vesiculobulllous lesions – Topical corticosteroid, Oral rinses, Systemic corticosteroid Oral cancer – Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy   Burning mouth syndrome Xerostomia – may predispose …

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chaitanya final prion ppt

Effects adolescents and young adults Associated with intake of infected animal products Long course of illness Hallucinations, dysphagia, dysarthria, paraesthesia,  Delirium, dementia and akinesia Ameloid deposition in lymphatic tissue Absence of EEG changes Advisory committee on Dangerous pathogens: General infection control practices are sufficient if the work does not involve …

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cgcg

After 1 week pt went to another dentist in Rayachoti and got extraction of root stumps in lower right  side but swelling didn’t subside. Then after 4 months pt went to the same dentist, as the swelling is increasing in size and got extraction of another lower right back tooth …

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CERVICOFACIAL LYMPHADENOPATHY

Lymph nodes are small lymphoid organs found in groups or chains at particular anatomic sites receiving lymphatic drainage from surrounding tissues Eg- neck, axillae, groins, para-aortic area The lymph nodes are highly organized centers of immune cells and are considered to be the first fortresses that aid in immunological defense. …

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ceph 2

Magnification X-ray beam not parallel with all point of objects Minimized by using long focus object and short object film distance Distortion Due to bilateral landmarks causing dual image Rotation of patient head Minimized by recording midpoint and use of standardized head orientation instruments   Radiation hazards Image enlargement and …

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cep

The Science Of  “Cephalometrics” Means Head Measurement. CEPHALO=HEAD METRIC=MEASUREMENT Back Bone For Orthodontic Diagnosis And Treatment Planning Describe And Analyse The Measurements Reveals Imp Anatomical Informations Of Internal Structures The Radiograph Obtained Is Called A CEPHALOGRAM. Standardized Method Of Production Of Skull Radiography Which Is Used To Study The Relationship …

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CELLULITIS4

Aerobic composition gram + cocci (Streptococci) gram – cocci (neisseria spp) gram+ rods (cornybacterium spp) gram- rods  (haemophillus spp) Complete history Physical examination Clinical  features Appropriate investigations Choose and Rx the appropriate AB Support the patient medically Treat the infection surgically Re-evaluate the patient frequently

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Case History & Diagnosis

Case History: a planned professional conversation which enables the patient to communicate his/her symptoms and fears to the clinician and recorded in the patients own words as to obtain an insight into the nature of the patient’s illness and his/her attitude to them. Diagnosis: The correct determination, discriminative estimation and …

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