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Biochemical mediators

  • Histological,histochemical and immunohistochemical studies have elucidated many details of the biological response to orthodontic forces and this acquired knowledge has frequently enabled clinicians to mold their therapeutic approaches to the individual patient’s constraints.
  • Two major responses elicited by orthodontic forces are orthodontic tooth movement brought about by bone and pdl remodeling and pain.
  • Its of advantage to the orthodontist to know the biological events that unfold during tooth movement because it varies from person to person .
  • Orthodontic tooth movement evokes cellular responses in the pdl and the alveolar bone.
  • Each tooth is attached to and separated from adjacent bone by heavy collagenous fibers called the pdl.
  • Other major constituents of the pdl are the cellular,vascular and neural elements along with the tissue fluids that play a vital role in orthodontic tooth movement.
  • Nerve endings are also found with in the ligament associated with perception of pain and the more complex receptors associated with pressure and positional information-
  • Proprioception –mechanoreceptors egs Ruffini and Meissners corpuscles.
  • Principle changes are that of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and their progeny in the form of fibroblasts and osteoblasts.
  • Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells under tension differentiate into osteoclasts and cementoclasts,these same cells under pressure differentiate into osteoblasts,fibroblasts and cementoblasts.
  • Pdl is a fluid filled chamber with retentive but porous walls cud be a description of a shock absorber along with the pdl space.

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