A Scientific approach to the scrutiny of human craniofacial patterns was first initiated by anthropologists and anatomists who recorded the various dimensions of ancient dry skulls.
The measurement of the dry skull from osteological landmarks, called CRANIOMETRY, was then applied to living subjects as a tool for ‘longitudinal growth studies’
The measurement of the head of a living subject from the bony landmarks located by palpation or pressing through the supra-adjacent tissues is called-CEPHALOMETRY.
The discovery of X-rays by Roentgen in 1895 revolutionized the dental profession. A radiographic head image could be measured in two dimensions, thereby making possible the accurate study of craniofacial growth and development.