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Affects and Effects of Functional Appliances

    •                                          Functional appliances
    •                           Increased contractile activity of the LPM
    •            Intensification of the repetitive activity of the retrodiscal pad
    •                              Increase in growth stimulating factors
    •                                   *Enhancement of local mediators (STH)
    •                                   *Reduction of local regulators (pre chondroblast multiplication restraining factor)
    •                          *Change in condylar trabecular orientation
    •                          *Additional growth of condylar cartilage
    • *Additional subperiosteal ossification of the posterior border of the mandible
    •                        Supplementary lengthening of the mandible
    • C-II CORRECTION : a likely scenario (Graber & Vanarsdall)         Skeletal effects:
    • Condylar growth amount during treatment (1-3 mm).
    • Fossa displacement, growth, & adaptation (3-5 mm).
    • Elimination of functional retrusion (0.5-1.5 mm).
    • More favorable growth direction (0.5-1.5 mm).
    • Withholding of downward & forward maxillary growth (1-1.5 mm).
    • Differential upward & forward maxillary growth (1.5-2.5 mm).
    • Headgear effect (0.5-0.0 mm).

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