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Endodontics

Working Length

working length

DETERMINATION OF WORKING LENGTH The determination of an accurate working length is one of the most critical steps of endodontic therapy. The cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system cannot be accomplished accurately unless the working length is determined precisely. the endodontic Glossary as “the distance from a …

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Traumatic Injuries of Teeth

traumatic injuries of teeth

Etiology Mechanism of action Introduction Classification Examination and diagnosis Crown infraction Uncomplicated crown fracture Complicated crown fracture Crown and root fracture Root fracture luxation injuries Avulsion Alveolar fracture Prevention of dental injuries Conclusion References Who classification modified by Andreasen and Andreasen used by international association of dental traumatology. Dentofacial injuries. …

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Endodontic Surgery

endodontic surgery

OBJECTIVE: As in all endodontic surgery procedures, the objective of periapical surgery is to ensure the placements of proper seal between the periodontium and the root canal foramina. When this seal cannot be achieved satisfactorily by working  through the canal system (orthograde filling), a surgical procedure permits visual and manipulative …

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Sterilization

sterilization

INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION STANDARDIZATION EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS DG EXPLORER ORFICE OPENERS MICRO OPENERS GATES GLIDDDEN DRILLS DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTS BARBED BROACHES AND RASPS SHAPING INSTRUMENTS K files and reamers K flex files Flex o files Canal master ROTARY INSTRUMENTS LIGHT SPEED PROFILE SERIES GREAT TAPER AND ACCESSORY FILES PROTAPER QUANTEC HERO 642 RACE …

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SONICS AND ULTRASONICS IN ENDODONTICS

SONICS AND ULTRASONICS

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION EVOLUTION AN INSIGHT   The Physics behind Ultrasonics   The Physics behind Sonics   BIOPHYSICAL EFFECTS OF ENDOSONICS   Cavitation   Acoustic Streaming IRRIGANTS ULTRASONICS SONICS A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Shaping of Root Canals Canal Debridement Root end Preparation Endodontic Re-treatment Intraradicular Post Removal Silver Point Removal Gutta Percha …

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Silver amalgam

Introduction History Advantages and disadvantages Classification composition Purpose of each ingredient Manufacturing of alloy Setting reaction Properties Gallium alloys Silver: Increases strength Increase setting expansion Decreases flow Improves color Setting time decreased Resist tarnish and corrosion

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CEMENTUM

Definition:     Cementum is a hard, avascular, mineralized connective tissue covering the anatomic roots of  human teeth.     It was first demonstrated microscopically in 1835 by two pupils of purkinje.     It begins at the cervical portion of the tooth at the Cementoenamel Junction and continues to …

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Resin Based Obturation

Resin Based Obturation

Materials used for obturation Core + Sealer = Obturation Acc to Grossman: Plastics Solids Cements Pastes Requirements of an ideal root canal filling material: Be easily introduced in canal Seal the canal laterally and apically Shouldn’t shrink after insertion Impervious to moisture Bacteriostatic Radiopaque Most common solid core root canal …

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Resin Adhesives

Resin adhesives

Introduction Adhesion Challenges in bonding to dentin Coronal vs radicular dentin Resin based root canal sealers        -factors affecting adhesion Post endodontic restoration Resin based luting cements Rehabilitation of endodontically treated tooth Restoration of access cavities Material incompatibility conclusion Improvement in esthetic materials & techniques Acid etch technique & composites …

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Replantation

Replantation

Introduction Definition & Types of replantation Replantation of Avulsed tooth Management recommendations Squealae to replantation Intentional Replantation Auto-transplantation Conclusion Tearing of PDL leaves viable cells on root surface Cemental tear Hydrated PDL maintains viability of cells – combat inflammation Cementoblast Vs Osteoblast Mobility With time osseous recontouring occurs Pulpal necrosis …

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RATIONALE OF POST ENDODONTIC RESTORATION

RATIONALE OF POST ENDODONTIC RESTORATION

Introduction Historical perspective Causes of tooth fracture Treatment planning Post systems Evidence based practice Principles of tooth preparation Core Corono-radicular restoration Restoration of resected root Over dentures Conclusion Metal pivot retention similar to Richman’s Crown Dental Physiology and Surgery, written by Sir John Tomes in 1849. Tomes’s post length and …

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Rational of Endodontics

Introduction Inflammation Causes of pulpal Inflammation Pathways of pulpal & periapical infection Responses of the pulp and periradicular tissue             Cellular & Vascular Components           Chemical mediators. Syngcuk kim’s hypothetic mechanism of pathophysiology of pulpal disorder Periradicular tissue changes following inflammation Endodontic implication              Fish theory of zones of  …

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PULPAL DISEASES

Bacterial    A. Coronal ingress             1. Caries   2. Fracture   a. Complete   b. Incomplete (cracks, infraction)   3. Nonfracture trauma   4. Anomalous tract   a. Dens invaginatus (aka dens in dente)   b. Dens evaginatus   c. Radicular lingual groove (aka palatogingival groove) Sharp pain but …

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CRA Newsletter

CRA Newsletter

CRA Newsletter Carious defects were almost always present under stained pits & fissures of non-smokers. 2.  If sealants were placed years earlier, & not maintained, teeth were always decayed. 3.  Practice of sealing stained pits & fissures needs reconsideration. 4.  Patients want to be made aware of their oral condition …

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Post Endodontic Restoration

Endodontic Restoration

747 PIERRE FAUCHARD described    how to restore roots of pulp less teeth                   — PIVOT  today termed as a post                              (Made of gold or silver)                         —Mastic-heat softened adhesive (mastic)                            (prepared by Gum, Lac, Turpentine                            and White coral powder) 1849 Sir John Tomes Post length and     diameter confirmed …

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Post & Core

Introduction History Treatment planning for post and core Classification of posts Factors affecting selection of post Principles of tooth preparation for post and core The ferrule effect Core and core materials Techniques of fabrication Recent advances conclusion   POST LENGTH     Equal to the cervico incisal or cervico occlusal length …

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Effect

Calcium hydroxide medicated root canals obturated   using zinc oxide eugenol sealers showed more apical   leakage.  Calcium hydroxide+eugenol compound = calcium   eugenolate.  Interaction between calcium hydroxide and zinc       oxide eugenol sealers produce a rapid setting   reaction.  Calcium hydroxide medicated root canals obturated using AH plus sealer …

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Mishaps

INTRODUCTION:    Endodontic mishaps or procedural accidents are those that happen    during treatment,some owing to inattention to detail and others    totally unpredictable. Mishaps will be discussed under following headings: RECOGNITION CORRECTION HOW WILL THEY AFFECT THE PROGNOSIS? PREVENTION     CLASSIFICATION: ACCESS RELATED: -TREATING THE WRONG TOOTH -MISSED CANALS …

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MICROSCOPY

LIGHT MICROSCOPE  PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPE STEREOMICROSCOPE  TOOLMAKER’S MICROSCOPE FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPE TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION MICROSCOPE  ELECTRON MICROSCOPE scanning electron microscope field emission scanning electron microscope transmission electron microscope CONFOCAL MICROSCOPE SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPES atomic force microscope  scanning tunneling microscope X-RAY MICROSCOPE     History of microscopy      The basics concepts of …

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Investigation

APPROPIATE TESTS FOR THYROTOXICOSIS       SERUM TSH       TRIIODOTHYRONINE        I-123 UPTAKE AND SCAN        ANTTHYROGLOBULIN AND        MICROSOMAL ANTIBODIES        THYROID STIMULATING IMMUNOGLOBULIN         TSH Receptor Antibody(TSH-R AB) TSH IMMUNOASSAY:       -Decreased in Hyperthyroidism Other conditions with low levels:      -Autonomous thyroid secretion      -Metformin      -Thyroid hormone in excessive or adequate replacement …

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Intracanal Medicaments

Intracanal Medicaments

Intracanal Medicaments Effective germicide and fungicide Nonirritating to periapical tissues Remain stable in solution Have a prolonged antimicrobial effect Active in presence of blood, serum and protein derivatives of tissue Low surface tension Not interfere with repair of periapical tissues Not stain tooth structure Capable of inactivation in a culture …

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INFECTION CONTROL

infection control

Infection control Infection control is also called as exposure control plan by OSHA() is required office program that is design to project personnel against risk of exposure to infection. Exposure: is defined as specific eye,mouth,other mucous membrane,non intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infections materials and …

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