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Endodontics

Fundamentals of Cavity Preparation

DEFINITION OF TOOTH PREPARATION   Tooth preparation is defined as the mechanical alteration of a defective, injured, or diseased tooth to best receive a restorative material that will reestablish a healthy state for the tooth, including esthetic corrections where indicated, along with normal form and function.     (Sturdevant)   Tooth preparation …

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FINISHING & POLISHING MATERIALS

finishing & polishing materials

Finishing, polishing of dental restorations are important aspects of clinical restorative procedures that enhance both aesthetics and longetivity of restored teeth. Residual surface roughness, associated with improper finishing and polishing of dental restorations ,can result in number of clinical difficulties. The problems include excessive plaque accumulation ,gingival irritation, increased surface …

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Fillers in Dentistry

INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE FILLERS? PROPERTIES OF A FILLER FILLERS USED IN VARIOUS MATERIALS COMPOSITES CERAMICS AMALGAM DIRECT FILLING GOLD TEMPORARY CEMENTS INVESTMENT MATERIALS CASTING ALLOYS IMPRESSION MATERIALS ENDODONTICS REFERENCES CONCLUSION    PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION TO INCREASE FILLER LOADING, IT IS NECESSARY TO ADD FILLER IN A RANGE OF PARTICLE SIZES. …

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Fadamentals of Cavity prep

CAVITY: Refers to a defect in enamel, or enamel & dentin, resulting from pathologic process- DENTAL CARIES Once caries process invaded-Frank cavitation Effective treatment  for preventing further progress – complete removal of affected area   p & f less than 50% of pulpal floor- removed in  final stage greater than …

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ENDOSONICS P

Introduction History Classifcation Differences between sonics and ultrasonics Endosonics         Classification         Principles of endosonics         Endosonic preparation         Endosonic mechanical energy         Endosonic chemical energy         Endosonic disinfection         Clinical procedure         Endosonics obturation   Sonics     Introduction      Different types of sonic instruments      Clinical procedure Comparative conclusion …

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Endodontic Microbiology

Endodontic Microbiology

Introduction History Gram +ve and Gram –ve organisms Aerobic and Anaerobic microorganisms Microflora of oral cavity Portals of root canal infection Bacterial pathogenicity Bacterial defence Host response Endodontic microflora Microorganisms cause virtually all pathoses of the pulp and the periradicular tissues. To effectively treat endodontic infections, clinicians must recognize the …

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ENDO SURGERY

Over the years Endodontic surgery has seen great advancements due to the advent of new technology.This field has progressed beyond Apicectomy (Root Resection,Root Amputation),to include periapical curettage,radiosectomy,replantation,implantation,trephination & incision for drainage. Root resection is the most common form of periapical surgery. The success rate of Endodontic surgery is high but …

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Endodontic Periodontal Problems

endodontic periodontal problems

Endodontic Periodontal Problems The tooth,its pulp & supporting structures are inter-related & influence each other during health,function & disease. The tooth vitality depends mainly on the ability of function & not viability of the pulp,Health of the structure is of prime importance. Therefore the tooth and the surrounding periodontium are …

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endo instruments

INTRODUCTION HISTORY CLASSIFICATION OF ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENTS EXAMINING INSTRUMENTS EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTS CLEANING AND SHAPING INSTRUMENTS STANDARDISATION OF ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENT ISO GROUP I INSTRUMENTS ISO GROUP II  INSTRUMENTS ISO GROUP III INSTRUMENTS ISO GROUP IV INSTRUMENTS NON-ISO INSTRUMENTS NEW CONCEPT IN INSTRUMENT DESIGN CONCLUSION   “worksman is known by his …

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Enamel

Enamel provides a hard durable shape for the functions of teeth and a protective cap for the vital tissues of dentin and pulp.Both colour and form contribute to esthetic appearance of enamel. Much of the art of restorative dentistry comes from efforts to stimate the color,texture,translucency and contours of enamel …

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E.Implants final

INTRODUCTION DEFINITIONS HISTORY MATERIALS INDICATIONS CONTRAINDICATIONS SUCCESS AND FAILURE TECHNIQUE REFERENCES CONCLUSION   Endodontic implants have the histological advantage of being totally intraosseous, without communication into the oral cavity. CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: There must be no communication to the oral cavity, as demonstrated by probing. There must be no radiographic …

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Root End Filling

GUIDELINES FOR AMALGAM USAGE AS A ROOT END FILLING   Control of moisture   High copper alloys   Varnish or Dentin bonding agent   Creates smooth surface    Prevent dispersion of alloy particles    Keep Alloy as small in diameter with enough   thickness GALLIUM ALLOYS    Toxic effect of …

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Newer Technique – final

OZONE TECHNOLOGY    Ozone (O3) – energized form of oxygen, part of the natural gas, surrounds earth at high altitude, blocks UV rays, produced by lightening.   Extensively used in medical profession, for therapeutic purposes produced in ozone generators.   Powerful biocide, strong oxidizer.   OZONE THERAPY FOR DENTAL CARIES …

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Endodontic in Medically – Final

CONTENTS   INTRODUCTION     CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES     RESPIRATORY DISEASES     RENAL DISEASES     LIVER DISEASES     GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES     BLEEDING DISORDERS     ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC DISEASES   NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS   AIDS AND RELATED CONDITIONS   CONCLUSION     REFERENCES   INTRODUCTION “ Medically compromised patients, …

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Root Canal Sealers

Cements easily lend to addition of chemicals   Paraformaldehyde – antimicrobial & mummifying   Rosin or Canada Balsam – dentin adhesion   Corticosteroids – suppression of inflammatory reactions.   Rosins – 90% resin acid and remaining are volatile and non-volatile compounds.   Resin acids – strong antimicrobial effect   Setting …

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Endo – Ortho Relation

ENDODONTIC CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO ORTHODONTICS WORKING LENGTH DETERMINATION   Apical constriction destroyed    Resorption on buccal and lingual aspect RADIOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION   Reflect osseous changes ACCURACY OF PULP TESTING     Presence of full metallic bands   RISK OF RESORPTION    Risk of external apical resorption during   movement of any …

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DIE MATERIALS

DIE: A die is a positive reproduction of a single tooth impression. Introduction:    Used to fabricate wax patterns for cast restorations.    They are usually detachable units on from the cast and can be reseated back into the cast.    They are made because proximal contouring of the restoration …

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Die Materials and Die Systems Part-1

Die Materials

Die Materials and Die Systems  In their study evaluated the comparative stability of two removable die systems. The systems evaluated were Pindex system (Whakedent Int) and Di-Lok system (Surgident Ltd.). The results indicated small inconsistent horizontal deviations and consistent vertical deviations for both       systems. The Pindex system …

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Dicor and Cerestore

dicor and cerestore

dicor Ceramics are usually defined in terms of what  they are not : nonmetallic (not metals) and inorganic (not resins). To distinguish them from rocks and minerals, the vast majority of which are also inorganic and nonmetallic, ceramics are additionally defined as man-made solid objects formed by baking raw materials …

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Diagnostic Aids in Endodontics

Diagnostic Aids

Diagnostic Aids Demographic information with respect to name, age, sex etc Chief complaint and history of present illness Medical and dental history Clinical examination Radiographic findings Other tests, laboratory values or consultations if required Provisional diagnosis / diagnosis Treatment plan Commercially available pulp testers      Digilog pulp tester      Parkell pulp …

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DIAGNOSIS IN ENDODONTICS

DIAGNOSIS

DIAGNOSIS   “Listen to your patient.  He is trying to tell you what is wrong with him”. (Sir William Osler)     Chief complaint is the history of the symptoms noted in the patient’s own words that describes the symptoms causing the discomfort. A proper diagnosis begins with information about …

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Diagnosis & Treatment plan

Diagnosis treatment plan

Diagnosis & Treatment plan Chief complaint is obtained by asking  the  patient  to  describe  the problem for which help is sought, or the reason for seeking treatment. The chief complaint is recorded in patients own words as much as possible and should not be translated into technical (formal diagnostic) language …

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Developmental Anamolies

Developmental Anamolies

Developmental Anamolies Enamel hypoplasias, fluorosis Amelogenesis imperfecta, hypocalcified, hypomaturation, and hypoplastic types Enamel opacities Enamel caries Dentinogenesis imperfecta age changes in dental tissues Enamel hypoplasia resulting from congenital syphilis (Treponema pallidum)             a. Hutchinson’s incisors             b. Mulberry molars Enamel …

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Detinal Hyper

detinal hyper

Dental hyper inward fluid shifts (because of frictional heat generation on the end of a poorly irrigated cutting bur). Outward fluid shifts due to evaporative water loss (if only air cooling is used), and slight inward fluid shifts due to osmotic movement of cooling water into dentin (Horiuchi and Matthews, …

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Detinal Hyper

Iontophoretic deposition of strontium in dentine was reported in 1980. The desensitizing effect and duration of action of anode iontophoresis using strontium chloride solution as the effective management of dentinal hypersensitivity was first reported by G. Ramachandran and Tom Jose. An extensive clinical trial was conducted under the support of …

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DENTINE CARIES

Prerequisites physiological remineralization: Presence collagen fibers Living odontoblastic process External remineralization: Saliva , calcium and phosphate Exposure bio-active agents   Dentists have an urge to replace restorations Perceived (but erroneous) requirement to ‘freshen up’ the cavity walls and margins. The teeth inevitably become weaker, thereby reducing their prognosis. The complexity …

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Dentin Pulp Complex

dentin pulp complex

Nutrition: blood supply for pulp and dentin. Sensory: changes in temp., vibration and chemical that affect the dentin and pulp. Formative: the pulp involve in the support, maintenance and continued formation of dentin. Defensive: triggering of inflammatory and immune response. Protective: Development and formation of secondary and tertiary dentin which …

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