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Endodontics

Statistical Tests

Introduction Descriptive statistics Tests of significance Parametric test Non Parametric test Application of tests in dental research Conclusion Bibliography Dr Sandesh N Normal BP – 120/80 mm Hg Europeans are taller than Asians Average male adult weighs 70kgs Drug A is better than drug B  

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Sharpening of Instruments

Testing the sharpness on the thumbnail If the cutting edge digs in during an attempt to slide the instrument over the thumbnail, the instrument is sharp.  If it slides, the instrument is blunt. Use light pressure in testing. Sterilize again after testing. Dental hatchet and carver The sharpening stone is …

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Root Canal Treatment

THE CANALS R FILLED WITH A PERMANENT MATERIAL GUTTA- PERCHA. THIS HELPS TO SAVE TOOTH & KEEP THE CANALS FREE OF THE CONTAMINATION. A THIN, METAL INSTRUMENT PLUGGER, IS USED TO PUSH THE GUTTA-PERCHA IN CANALS SO THAT IT BECOMES COMPACT A TEMPORARY FILLING MATERIAL IS PLACED ON TOP OF …

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RECENT ADVANCES IN GIC FINAL

RECENT ADVANCES IN GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS IMPROVED TRADITIONAL GLASS IONOMERS   –   HIGHLY VISCOUS GIC / PACKABLE GIC/   CONDENSABLE GIC   –  LOW VISCOSITY GIC METAL – MODIFIED GLASS IONOMERS   –  MIRACLE MIX   –  CEREMET RESIN MODIFIED GLASS IONOMERS POLY ACID- MODIFIED COMPOSITE RESINS / COMPOMERS …

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Rationale of Endodontics

Introduction Inflammation Causes of pulpal Inflammation Pathways of pulpal & periapical infection Responses of the pulp and periradicular tissue             Cellular & Vascular Components           Chemical mediators. Syngcuk kim’s hypothetic mechanism of pathophysiology of pulpal disorder Periradicular tissue changes following inflammation Endodontic implication              Fish theory of zones of  …

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Procedural Errors – Endo Mishaps

The advent of nickeltitanium files, rotary instrumentation, “endosonics,”radiovisiography, the endoscope, and the clinical microscope are but a few innovations that have changed the way in which endodontics is practiced. This progress has increased both productivity and quality of care.   Endodontic Mishaps Access related Treating the wrong tooth Missed canals …

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PROCED ERRORS DURING CLEANING AND SHAPING

Classification of procedural errors Procedural errors during cleaning and shaping Loss of working length Canal blockage Ledge formation Deviation from the normal canal anatomy Perforations Separated instruments and foreign objects Inadequate canal preparation :   Overinstrumentation   Overpreparation   Underpreparation Introduction   Endodontic mishaps or procedural accidents are    those …

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PRINCIPLES OF ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

The word PRINCIPLE according to  the OXFORD English Dictionary means a fundamental truth serving as the foundation for an action.   The basic principles underlying  the treatment of teeth with  endodontic problems are  those underlying surgery in general STERILISATION: The process that destroys all types and forms of microorganisms, including …

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Principles of Tooth Preparation

Preservation of tooth structure Retention and resistance form Structural durability of the restoration Marginal integrity Preservation of the periodontium Do not remove excess of tooth structure , do not over taper Tooth becomes weak Pulp health gets jeopardised Reduction must be  adequate  ,  less reduction will  lead to overcontoured restoration …

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Principles of Tooth Preparation

CONSERVATION OF TOOTH STRUCTURE Partial coverage rather than complete coverage Preparation with minimum convergence angle (taper) between axial walls Preparation of the occlusal surface so reduction follows the anatomic planes to give uniform thickness in the restoration Preparation of the axial surfaces so tooth structure is removed evenly; if necessary, …

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Post & Core

                          CONTENTS Introduction History Treatment planning for post and core Classification of posts Factors affecting selection of post Principles of tooth preparation for post and core The ferrule effect Core and core materials Techniques of fabrication Recent advances conclusion POST SHAPE Parallel sided parallel sided posts – removal of more …

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Pain Management

NSAID’S are a Heterogenous Group of Compounds.    These are different groups of Drugs which share       certain Therapeutic actions and side Effects.    M.O.A – Exert action by inhibiting the Biosynthesis       and release of Prostoglandins.    Inhibit Cyclo – Oxygenase Enzyme.    Rapidly and Completely absorbed.    Highly Protein Bound …

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ORAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE

The interface  consists of CT ridges ,conical papillae  projecting into the epithelium. The surface area of the interface is flat  & provide better attachment It helps in dissipating the force applied on the epithelium to greater area of CT. MASTICATORY MUCOSA has greater number of papillae per unit area . …

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Oral Microflora

CONTENTS OF THE SEMINAR Introduction. Ecological Terminologies. Mouth as a habitat for microbial growth. Factors affecting the growth of the micro-    organisms in the oral cavity. Distribution of the resident oral micro flora. Adhesion, acquisition, metabolism. Dental plaque. Microflora in disease. Opportunistic infections. Conclusion. Introduction The mouth is continually …

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ORAL MICROBIAL FLORA final

Introduction and history Morphology of bacteria/viruses/fungi General concepts of pathology Host-parasite interaction Immunity in the oral cavity Development of oral flora Factors affecting development of oral flora The normal microbial flora of  different sites of the mouth Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites Do not fall strictly into the category of …

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ORAL CHANGES DUE TO AGING

Ageing is a slowing of natural function. A disintegration of the balanced controlled and organization that is  characteristic of  the young adult. It is a process of morphological and physiological disintegration.   Enamel does not undergo any further deposition after it has been laid down. Color of enamel becomes darker …

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Occlusion

INTRODUCTION GENERAL DESCRIPTION GOALS FOR COMPLETE DENTISTRY RESPONSE TO HIGH RESTORATION OCCLUSAL DISEASE TMJ MASTICATORY MUSCULATURE MANDIBULAR MOVEMENT POSSELT’S MOTION OCCLUSAL SCHEMES CENTRIC OCCLUSION CENTRIC RELATION DETERMINING CENTRIC RELATION LOAD TESTING OF TMJ’S RECORDING CENTRIC RELATION CLASSIFICATION OF OCCLUSION DETERMINANTS OF OCCLUSION THE PLANE OF OCCLUSION POSTERIOR OCCLUSION ROLE OF …

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OBTURATION

“Both gutta-percha and silver points meet most of these requirements. If the gutta-percha point has a fault, it lies in its inherent plasticity, for it requires special handling to position it.   The major fault with the silver point is its lack of plasticity—its inability to be compacted.”   The …

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Obturation 3

REQUIREMENTS FOR AN IDEAL ROOT CANAL FILLING MATERIAL    Easily introduced into the canal    Should seal the canal laterally as well as   apically   Should not shrink after being inserted    Should be impervious to moisture    Bacteriostatic    Radiopaque   Should not stain the tooth structure   …

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Obturation 2

INTRODUCTION   Hatton 1924 indicated that “Perhaps  there is no technical operation in dentistry or surgery where so much depends on the conscientious adherence to high ideals as that of pulp canal filling”.   Obturation is the substitution of an inert filling in the space previously occupied by the pulp …

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OBTURATING MATERIALS

Advantages Does not shrink – dimensionally stable Easily sterilized Does not encourage bacterial growth Inert – least reactive Radiopaque Nonstaining Impervious to moisture Easily removed – has known solvents Least irritating – well tolerated by periapical tissue Compressible / Compactible Becomes plastic when warmed or with solvent   Ideal requirements …

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Neuro-Muscular Function

INTRODUCTION “You cannot successfully treat dysfunction unless you understand function.” -JPO   The functions of masticatory systems is complex.   Discriminatory contraction of various head and neck muscle is necessary to move the mandible precisely and allow effective functioning. A highly refined neurologic control system regulates and co-ordinates the activities …

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