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ENDOSONICS AND SONICS

  • Introduction
  • History
  • Classifcation
  • Differences between sonics and ultrasonics
  • Endosonics
  •         Classification
  •         Principles of endosonics
  •         Endosonic preparation
  •         Endosonic mechanical energy
  •         Endosonic chemical energy
  •         Endosonic disinfection
  •         Clinical procedure
  •         Endosonics obturation

 

  • Sonics
  •     Introduction
  •      Different types of sonic instruments
  •      Clinical procedure
  • Comparative conclusion of automated devices
  • Endosonics in Retreatment
  •         Classification
  •         Different types of ultrasonic tips
  • Endosonics in Periapical surgery
  •        Isthmus prepartion
  •        Retropreparation
  • Ultrasonic tips in restorative dentistry
  • Conclusion
  • References

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