Orthodontic tooth movement is induced by the prolonged application of controlled forces, which create pressure and tension zones in the PDL and alveolar bone, causing a remodeling of the sockets. This remodeling and tooth displacement occurs by means of an inflammatory process involving osteoclasts, osteoblast, neuropeptides, cytokines, along with changes in innervation and local vascularization.
Orthodontists often prescribe drugs to manage pain from force application to biological tissues, manage TMJ problems, and tackle fungal and viral infections throughout the course of treatment.
A recent review of pharmaceuticals commonly used in orthodontic practice, provided an insight into the dosage, pharmacological actions and side effects of these agents .
Apart from these drugs, patients who consume vitamins, minerals, and other compounds, for the prevention or treatment of various diseases, can also be found in every orthodontic practice. Some of these drugs may have profound effects on the short- and long-term outcomes of orthodontic treatment. However, in many cases little is known on the nature of this interaction between specific drugs and orthodontic tissue remodeling, thereby increasing the risk of negative effects.