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Inferior Positioning of Maxilla

  • Newman 1965 introduced direct bonding of orthodontic attachments
  • Kneirim 1973 published the first report of the use of this technique to construct bonded fixed retainers.
  • Zachrisson 1977 introduced direct bonded lingual 3-3 retainers
  • Årtun and Zachrisson 1982 first described the clinical technique for the use of a multistrand wire canine-to-canine bonded fixed retainer.
  • Zachrisson 1983- fixed retainer bonded to all the teeth in the labial segement
  • Bonded canine-to-canine retainer:
  • Severe pretreatment lower incisor crowding or rotation
  • Planned alteration in the lower intercanine width
  • After advancement of the lower incisors during active treatment
  • After nonextraction treatment in mildly crowded cases
  • After correction of deep overbite.

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