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Oral Medicine

1st arch syndromes

1st pair of pharyngeal arches ,Primordium of jaws appear as surface elevations lateral to developing pharynx . Soon other arches appear as obliquely disposed ,rounded ridges on each side of future H&N regions. By end of 4rth week 4 well defined pairs of pharyngeal arches visible Externally. 5,6arches rudimentary.   …

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Introduction History Mechanism of action of OPIOID’s Opium alkaloids Types Morphin Classification of opioid alkaloids Individual drugs Endogenous opioids Conclusion References The opioid drugs produce their effects by binding to opioid receptors which are widely distributed in the CNS and other tissues. Opioid receptors are part of the family of …

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Gingival Enlargements

    Clinical Features It originates as a slight ballooning of the interdental papilla and marginal gingiva. In the early stages it produces a life preserver shaped bulge around the involved teeth. This bulge can  increase in size until it covers part of the crowns. The enlargement may be localized / …

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Muscle Relaxants

Skeletal muscle relaxants are drugs that act peripherally at neuromuscular junction/ muscle fibre itself or centrally in the cerebrospinal axis to reduce muscle tone and / or cause paralysis The neuromuscular blocking agents are used in conjunction with general anaesthetics to provide muscle relaxation for surgery, while centrally acting muscle …

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1949: The NSAID Phenylbutazone introduced 1963: Indomethacin introduced 1971: Vane and Piper demonstrated NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production 1974: Ibuprofen introduced 1976: Miyamoto et al  purified the COX-1 enzyme 1989: Simmons et al identified the COX-2 enzyme 1999: The COXIBs Celebrex (celecoxib) and Vioxx (rofecoxib) introduced   Non selective COX inhibitors …

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