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Oral Pathology

WBC Disorders-3

First described by Miller, Oski and Harris in 1971. It is a syndrome caused by loss of chemotactic function of              neutrophils Marrow contains normal number of matured neutrophils, but patients have severe neutropenia because the cells are unable to migrate  from the  marrow to peripheral blood. Infections – as neutrophils …

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wbc disorders 1

May be caused by an increase in neutrophils count (neutrophilia), lymphocyte count (lymphocytosis), monocyte count (monocytosis), eosinophilic granulocyte count (eosinophilia), basophilic granulocyte count (basophilia) immature cells (blasts). A combination of any of the above may be involved. Neutrophils > 7.5 x 10^9/L Pathological Acute pyogenic  infection Acute hemorrhage or hemolysis …

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VITAMINS

Frederick G. Hopkins, a biochemist at Cambridge University, England and a Nobel Prize Winner, reported in 1906 that there was an unknown something in food essential for life and health. Casimir Funk, a Polish chemist, obtained an antiberiberi substance from rice polishings. He believed that the active factor that he …

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vitamins -2

Folic acid is found in green leafy vegetables, liver, lima beans and whole grain cereals. Functions : help produce and maintain new cells, especially important during periods of rapid cell division and growth such as infancy and pregnancy.   CASAL’s necklace refers to characteristic advanced skin lesions of pellagra and …

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Viral diseases 3

Ulcers preceded by gingival inflammation, heal spontaneously & leave no scar. HSV-I can be isolated from lesion in 2-6 days. Transmitted by direct contact , saliva Viruses lost if remain 2 hrs in sunlight. Reach nerve ganglion supplying the area remain latent till reactivated   At  the end of the …

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viral diseases 2

Acute febrile disease by Coxsackievirus A 10 Predominantly children  and young adults Sore throat, fever, and mild headache,  anorexia, lasting from 4 to 14 days Low nu. (1 to 5) raised, discrete, whitish or yellow to dark pink nodules surrounded by a narrow zone of eythema Appear on uvula, soft …

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viral diseases 1

Pathogenesis of HIV infection After binding – internalized in to the host cell – uncoated – viral RNA then reverse transcribed in to linear double stranded DNA in cytoplasm – transported to nucleus – integrated in the host cell – transcribed in to full length RNA – leads to genome …

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Verrucous & Melanoma

OSCC Fast growing Usually ulcerated Invasive High metastasis Radical treatment Prognosis poor Verrucous carcinoma Slow growing Exophytic growth Superficial invasive Low metastatic potential Simple local excision Good prognosis Marked epithelial proliferation Downgrowth of epithelium without true invasion Well differentiated epithelium with little mitotic activity Cleft like spaces lined by parakeratin …

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Variants of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Rajendran R, Sivapathasundaram B. Shafer’s Textbook of pathology. 6th edition. Neville oral and maxillofacial pathology second editon. Lever’s histopathology of skin. seventh edition Lucas pathology of oral tissues. fifth edition   Clinicopathologic features of  variants of  SCC, including Verrucous carcinoma, Papillary squamous cell carcinoma, Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, Spindle cell …

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urine examination

A significant amount of information can be obtained through the examination of urine. Careful examination enables the detection of disease processes intrinsic to the urinary system, both functional and structural. The progression or regression of various lesions. Furthermore, systemic disease processes, such as endocrine or metabolic abnormalities, can be detected …

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Ulcerative Lesions.

Chronic autoimmune subepithelial disease affecting the mucous membrane of patients above 50 years. Results in mucosal blistering, ulceration and subsequent scarring. The primary lesion of MMP occurs when the autoantibodies directed against the protein in the basement membrane zone acting with complement C3 and nuetrophils causing subepithelial split and subsequent …

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ULCERATIVE LESIONS2222

PROTECTIVE  EMOLLIENT  SUCH  AS  ORABASE  OR  ZILACTIN PAIN  RELIEF  IS  OBTAINED  BY  USING  TOPICAL  DICLOFENAC IN  MORE  SEVERE  CASES – USE  OF  HIGH  POTENCY  TOPICAL   STEROID  PREPARATION  SUCH  AS  BETAMETHASONE ,OR   CLOBETASOLINTRALESIONAL  STEROIDS  CAN  BE  USED  TO  TREAT   LARGE  INDOLENT  MAJOR  RAS  LESIONS SYSTEMIC  THERAPY-COLCHICINE , PENTOXIFYLLINE , …

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TYPES OF LENSES

If the lens is biconcave or plano-concave, a collimated beam of light passing through the lens is diverged (spread); the lens is thus called a negative or diverging lens. The beam after passing through the lens appears to be emanating from a particular point on the axis in front of …

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trigeminal neuralgia

Surgical treatment Gasserian ganglion-level procedures Microvascular decompression (MVD) Ablative treatments Precutaneous placing of a radiofrequency lesion in a nerve –  Balloon compression (BC) Posterior craniotomy Peripheral neurectomy Alcohol or phenol block Uncertain Traumatic compression of the trigeminal nerve by neoplastic (cerebellopontine angle tumor) or vascular anomalies Infectious agents Human herpes …

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triangles of neck

Anatomists use the term triangles of the neck to describe the divisions created by the major muscles in the region. The side of the neck presents a somewhat quadrilateral outline, limited, above, by the lower border of the body of the mandible, and an imaginary line extending from the angle …

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TMJ-II

Occlusal therapy:-altering the mandibular position,  the occlusal contact pattern, Or both of the teeth. It can be divided into two types: Reversible Irreversible Reversible occlusal therapy- It temporarily alters the pt’s occlusal condition – an occlusal appliance. offers optimum condyle-disc-fossa relationship for the patient- thus provides orthopaedic stability. The orthopaedic …

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TMJ_III

It represents an early stage of disc derangement disorders Cause: Elongation of the capsular and discal ligament, coupled with thinning of the articular disc. These changes commonly result from microtrauma (bruxism) or macrotrauma ( revealed through history). Class II Division 2 malocclusion. History: Macrotrauma Microtrauma- bruxism. Clinical characteristics: Relatively normal …

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TMJ

Posterior articulating surface is greater than anterior surface. The articulating surface of condyle is quite convex anteroposteriorly and only slightly convex mediolaterally. Pterygoid fovea  on the antero-medial aspect of the mandibular neck where inferior head and most fibres of the superior head and lateral pterygoid muscle insert  on the mandible. …

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Theories of staining (2)

Occur between reagent and tissue substrates Involves various intermolecular attractions Dipole-dipole Dipole induced dipole Dispersion forces These forces are polar attractions Effective over a short distance Non symmetrical molecules posses stronger dipoles than symmetrical molecules   Factors affecting are: Variation in section thickness Temperature Stirring of the reagent solution Presence …

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Temporomandibular Joint

Functional Anatomy Biomechanics of the Masticatory System Etiology and Identification of functional disturbances in the masticatory system. Causes Signs and symptoms History and examination Investigations   General considerations  in treatment. Treatment of Masticatory muscle disorder Treatment of TMJ disorders Treatment of Chronic Mandibular hypomobility and growth disorders Treatment sequencing

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taste bud

Also called gustatory calculi. There are about 10,000 taste buds. 80μm high & 40μm thick. They are present on epiglottis, soft palate, pharynx and walls of papillae of tongue. Numerous taste buds are found on lateral wall of vallate papillae , in folds of foliate papillae ,on posterior surface of …

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STRUCTURES OF BASEMENT MEMBERANE

“Basement  membranes are thin layers of a specialized extra-cellular matrix that  form  the supporting structure on which epithelial and  endothelial cells grow and that surround muscle  and fat cells and the schwann cells of  peripheral  nerves.”   The interstitial collagen (type I and type III) act as supportive structures which …

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structure of HIV virus

INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV VIRUS STRUCTURAL GENES LIFE CYCLE OF HIV VIRUS VIRAL REPLICATION PRIMARY HIV SYNDROME HIV ASSOCIATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS INFANTS WITH HIV IMMUNOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS LAB DIAGNOSIS OF HIV INFECTION Envelope (Env) gene codes for envelope proteins gp160, gp120 and gp41. These polyproteins will eventually be cleaved by proteases …

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staning of teeth

  DISCOLORATION CAN HAVE SIGNIFICANT   EFFECT Personality Mentally and socially unpleasant effects Self confidence Can cause the stress May be a sign of a systemic disease. Teeth with hypo plastic  defects, have higher tendency for developing caries   Enamel microabrasion:   This technique involves the rotary application of a …

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stain -toludin blue

Diagnostic efficacy of Lugol’s iodine and Toluidine blue in oral premalignant and malignant lesions; Kamarthi Nagaraju et al; Indian Journal of Dental Reaserch;2010. Advanced Diagnostic Aids in Oral Cancer; KMK Masthan et al; Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev,2012; 13, 3573-3576. Supravital Staining: It’s Role In Detecting Early Malignancies;Mahesh Chandra Hegde, …

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