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Oral Pathology

Biopsy validated

Surgical excision by scalpel Surgical removal by cautery or a high frequency cutting knife Removal by biopsy forceps or biopsy punch Aspiration through a needle with a large lumen Exfoliative cytology   Surface of the lesion is wiped with sponge material which is then sectioned, or scraped. Scrape the surface …

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Binoculars Microscope

At the end of the seminar, learner should be able to Know about basic keyword of optics and Microscope Know about types of microscope Know about components of  microscope Know about function of components of microscope Know about principle mechanism of Binocular microscope Achromatic objective lens: The least expensive and …

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Beningn Salivary Gland Tumor

Monomorphic Adenoma   Benign salivary gland tumor showing a more uniform histopathologic pattern Basal cell Adenoma   Basal cell Adenoma is a benign salivary tumor that is composed of basaloid appearance of the tumor cells.      Uncommon neoplasm 1-2% of all salivary tumors      First reported by Kleinasser and Klein …

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Beningn Epithelial TumorsII

At  the end of the lecture student should be able to understand the: Histological classification of salivary gland tumors. Etiology, clinical features, histopathological features of: Canalicular adenoma Warthins tumor Oxyphilic adenoma Myoepithelioma Ductal papilloma   Canalicular Adenoma Distinctive variant of the monomorphic adenoma Clinical Features Primarily in intraoral accessory salivary …

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BENIGN EPITHELIAL TUMORS (2)

Long thin finger like projections extending above the surface of mucosa Continuous layer of str.sq. epithelium Thin central conn. tissue core supports nutrients blood vessels Proliferation of spinous layer in pappillary fashion Conn. tissue not considered a part of neoplastic element Chr. inflammatory cells persent Mitosis sometimes present   Begins …

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Benign CT Tumors 6

At the end of the lecture ,the student should be able to: Describe clinical features, radiographic features, histopathologic features &treatment of  Chondroma Describe clinical features, radiographic features, histopathologicfeature&treatment of Osteoma,osteoid Osteoblastoma Define,etiology, clinical features, histopathologic features &treatment of Torus palatinus Define,etiology, clinical features, histopathologic features &treatment of Torus mandibularis, Describe …

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Benign CT Tumors 5

At the end of the lecture student should be able to Describe differences between Hemangiomas & Vascular Malformations , classification of vasoformative tumors ,associated syndromes,clinical features, histopathological features and treatment of  Hemangiomas Describe classification,clinical features, histopathological features and treatment of  Lymphangiomas  Describe types,clinical features,radiographic features, histopathological features and treatment of  …

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Benign CT Tumors 4

Abundant myxoid ground substance (mucopolysaccharides, mainly hyaluronic acid) True neoplasm made of tissue resembling primitive mesenchyme Benign lesion, does not metastasize Frequently infiltrates adjacent tissues Intraoral soft tissue myxoma- extremely rare Cases occurring in jaw bones- commonly are odontogenic myxomas   Clinical Features- Hereditary disease, Autosomal dominant trait, No gender …

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Benign CT Tumors 3

Clinical Features- Young patients under 30 yrs, Female : Male  =   2:1 Mandible, Ant. parts, commonly crossing midline No sign & symptoms, accidental finding May cause expansion of cortex & perforation Mobility, displacement & root resorption of associated tooth Borders of lesion may be regular or diffuse Gross findings at …

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Benign CT Tumors 2

Histopathlogic Features- Surface- ulcerated SSE or intact exceedingly cellular  mass of C.T. Large nos. of plump proliferating fibroblasts intermingled throughout very delicate fibrillar stroma Characteristic high degree of cellularity Vascularity not prominent Histopathologic Features- Nonencapsulated mass of tissue Delicate reticular & fibrillar C.T. stroma Large nos. of ovoid or spindle …

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Benign CT Tumors 1

Most common benign tumor of oral cavity Reactive focal fibrous hyperplasia due to trauma or local irritation Clinical Features: buccal mucosa along plane of occlusion gingiva, buccal mucosa, tongue, lips & palate may be small, or several cm in diam.   Histologic Features- Bundles of interlacing collagen fibers interspersed with …

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Balanced Diet-seminar

A protein which is deficient in one essential amino acid when mixed with another protein having that particular amino acid in sufficient amount, the mixture becomes a superior protein. This is called supplementary value of proteins. Amino acids may be utilized to synthesize products other than protein or urea. For …

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Bacterial infections II

occur within 14 days of infection. Generalized tetanus Spasm of masseter Stiffness and pain in jaws, neck muscles. Rigidity of facial muscles producing “Risus sardonicus” The contraction of muscles of back produces an arched back called as Opisthotonos   Caused by Treponema palladium Classified as acquired or congenital Acquired form …

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Bacterial infections I

Initial stages are asymptomatic about 2 or 4 weeks after infection Tissue damaging Macrophages activating response develop. Due to specific immunity and accumulation of large amount of  activated macrophages at site of primary lesion, Granulomatous or Tubercle are formed   Chronic granulomatous infection caused by mycobacterium leprae It is an …

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BACTERIAL INFECTION OF ORAL CAVITYIIII

Occurs predominantly in children during winter months. Caused by β-hemolytic streptococci. Clinical features Incubation period 3-5 days Sever pharyngitis, tonsillitis, headache, fever, chills, vomiting Enlargement of cervical lymphnodes.   Clinical features- Frequently found on gingiva, lips, tongue , buccal mucosa and other areas. Elevated, pedunculated, or sessile mass with smooth, …

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AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

Voluntary Skeletal muscle Single efferent neuron Axon terminals release acetylcholine Always excitatory Controlled by the cerebrum Involuntary Smooth, cardiac muscle;  glands Multiple efferent neurons Axon terminals release acetylcholine or norepinephrine Can be excitatory or inhibitory Controlled by the homeostatic centers in the brain – pons, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata Both ANS …

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Apoptosis

Although many of the key apoptotic proteins that are activated or inactivated in the apoptotic pathways have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of action or activation of these proteins are not fully understood and are the focus of continued research.   Apoptosis is a pathway of cell death that is …

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Anatomy of Tongue

Introduction Embryology External features & Papillae of the tongue Muscles of the tongue Arterial, Venous and Lymphatic Drainage Nerve supply Functions Disorders Investigations Conclusion References   Posterior part or root of tongue originates from second , third, & part of fourth pharyngeal arch. Sensory nerve supply to this part of …

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ANATOMY OF SALVARY GLAND

MICROANATOMY     The secretory unit (salivary unit) consists of the acinus, myoepithelial cells, the intercalated duct, the striated duct, and the excretory duct. All salivary acinar cells contain secretory granules; in serous glands, these granules contain amylase, and in mucous glands, these granules contain mucin. Acini, responsible for producing the primary …

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Anatomy of Facial Nerve

Introduction Embryology Nucleus Surface marking Functional components Course and relations Branches and distribution Ganglia Arterial Supply & Venous Drainage Applied Aspects Disorders   Facial nerve course, branching pattern, and anatomical relationships – established during the first 3 months of prenatal life The nerve is not fully developed until about 4 …

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Anaemia part 1

At the end of the lecture, the learner should be able to understand – Definition of anaemia Classification Pernicious anaemia Aplastic anaemia   RBC count low Reduced Hb Paucity of granulocytes, monocytes and reticulocytes. Pancytopenia Bleeding Time prolonged Clotting Time normal Marrow normal or hypocellular

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Amelogenesis

Amelogenins Hetrogenous group of gene specific, low molecular weight protein (20 to 30 kDa) Hydrophobic protein. Rich in proline, histadine and glutamine Enzymatic degradation leads to formation of LRAP – Lysine rich amelogenin protein TRAP – Tyrosine rich amelogenin protein No matrix vesicles for initial calcification Closed environment to initiation …

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Amelo

Tencate’s oral histology and embryology-8th edition Oral histology-Berkovitz,3rd  edition Orban’s oral histology,13th edition Oral development & histology ,James K. Avery 2nd edition. Dental enamel, John wiley At this stage ameloblast reflects their intense synthetic and secretory activity. Golgi complex and RER  is present extensively. Protein synthesized is  processed in golgi …

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Allergic and Immunologic Diseases-III

At  the end of the lecture student should describe Clinical Features, Oral manifestations, histopathology & treatment modalities of Sarcoidosis Uveoparotid fever Midline lethal granuloma Wegner’s granulomatosis   Form of Sarcoidosis. Firm, painless bilateral enlargement of parotid glands, accompanied by inflammation of uveal tracts of eye & cranial nerve involvement. Submaxillary, …

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Allergic and immunologic diseases-II

At  the end of the lecture student should  describe- Incidence,Prevalence,Clinical Features ,Oral manifestations,Diagnostic criteria,Treatment modalities & Complications of Behcet’s syndrome Reiter’s syndrome Text book of oral pathology Shafer’s, 5 & 6th edition Color Atlas of Oral Diseases Cawson, R.  2nd edition Oral  and Maxillofacial Pathology Neville, Brad W.  2nd Lucas’s …

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Allergic and immunologic diseases-I

Recurrent apthous minor- commonest (canker sore) Recurrent apthous major-    Severe form (periadenitis mucosa necrotina recurrens or Sutton’s disease) Recurrent herpetiform ulceration-     Clusters of ulcer resembling viral lesion but lacking evidence of virus and low antibody to mucosa Recurrent ulcer with Behcet‘s syndrome Frequently in females, 10 to 30 years Frequency …

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Acute inflammation

Inflammation is a body defense reaction or a protective response in order to eliminate or limit the spread of injurious agent followed by removal of the necrosed cell and tissues. It is a local physiologic response to tissue injury. It is  a complex reaction in tissues that consists mainly of …

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