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Oral Pathology

Spread of Oral Infection-2012

At  the end of the lecture student should be able to    understand & describe Routes of spread of infection. Etiology, clinical features, histopathological   features of Cellulitis. Etiology, clinical features, histopathological   features of Ludwig’s Angina. Osteomylitis-An inflammatory process within medullary bone that involves the marrow spaces Parulis-A sessile nodule on the …

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Spread of Oral Infection 1

Cellulitis of face & neck- From dental infection as a sequela of an apical abscess or osteomyelitis Periodontal infections Pericoronitis Tooth extraction, injection either with an infected needle or through an infected area, jaw fracture Potential spaces situated between planes of fascia that form natural pathways along which infection may …

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special stains

Best-known & most frequently used technique for detection of carbohydrate (glycogen) Principle: periodic acid oxidizes glycol group to aldehydes & this in turn are revealed as a reddish-purple (magenta) dye product on treatment with leucofuchsin (schiff reagent).   To know the status of invasion by evaluating intactness of basement membrane. …

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SIALOLITHIASIS

Largest salivary gland. Secretion is serous in nature. It is pyramidal in shape,the apex is towards the angle of mandible ,the base at the external acoustic meatus. Anteriorly the gland extends upto the buccal pad of fat. Posteriorly encircle the posterior body of mandible. The submandibular gland and duct are …

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SHOCK AND ITS MANAGEMENT-final

In severe shock the microcirculation changes dramatically. Those changes are mainly due to a “cytokine storm” induced by extremely severe tissue ischemia or, directly, by a pathogen: (1) the endothelium is activated (vasodilates, becomes pro-coagulant, expresses adhesion molecules), (2) monocytes are activated (and discharge numerous cytokines), (3) white blood cells …

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SEMINAR ON DIGITAL RGY

Introduction Analog versus digital Uses of digital radiography Elements – sensors in detail Digital imaging systems Advantages & disadvantages Legal aspect Conclusion References   To detect lesions, diseases & conditions of teeth and surrounding structures. To confirm or classify the suspected disease. To provide information during dental procedures. To illustrate …

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SEMINAR CASE HISTORY

Clinicians with advanced training in this discipline manage oral mucosal disease, salivary gland disorders, and facial pain syndromes and also provide dental care for patients with complicating medical disease. However, all general dentists and dental specialists must be aware of oral medicine and the medical status of their patients in …

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sem on zmc fractures

At the end of the presentation the learner should be able to Describe anatomy of zygomatic complex region Describe classification of zygomatic fractures. Describe clinical features of zygomatic fractures Describe management of ZMC fractures Describe postsurgical complication.   Zygoma,Malar, Tripoid, Trimalar, Qatripoid Second in frequency after nasal bone fracture. Male …

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SALIVARY GLAND

At the end of the seminar, learners should be able to: – Classify the salivary glands. Describe the development of salivary glands. Describe the Anatomical features of major and minor salivary glands. Histology of salivary gland.     Solid cord of cells forms     epithelial bud by cell     proliferation. Basal …

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romanowsky stain

Subacute leukemia: TLC is between 1-2 lakh/cumm. The severity and duration ranges between acute and chronic. Chronic leukemia: TLC >2 lakhs/cumm It is malignant clonal proliferation of mature or differentiated cells of  haematopoitic origin. Long  duration, slow growing , late appearance of c/f.   Cellular component Nuclei Chromatin Nucleoli Cytoplasm …

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Revision-Odontogenic tumors

The histologic subtype may have prognostic implications for recurrence. The follicular type of ameloblastoma had the highest rate of recurrence at 29.5%. The acanthomatous type of ameloblastoma showed only a 4.5% recurrence rate. The plexiform subtype showed a 16.7% recurrence rate. Recurrences documented in granular cell , basal cell,& Desmoplastic …

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Retinoids and anticancer activity

The anticancer activity of antioxidant micronutrients has now been well established in clinical studies, animal experimentation, cell culture studies and epidemiological studies dealing with cancer risk and low serum values for micronutrients. In animal studies using the hamster cheek pouch epidermoid carcinoma model, micronutrients have been shown to be capable …

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Respiratory System

Ventilation – movement of air between the atmosphere and alveoli Perfusion – blood flow through the lungs Diffusion – oxygen and carbon dioxide are transferred between alveoli and blood Regulation – respiratory muscles and nervous system Have a very thin membrane that allows rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide …

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Respiration diseases

Pharyngitis, tonsillitis & laryngitis Mucosa and lymphoid tissue Viruses and bacteria (Group A str) Sore throat with dysphagia Penicillin or erythromycin if bacterial Symptomatic if viral Hoarseness of voice Dental consideration-change the toothbrush and clean RPD after acute stage due to persistance of bacteria on them.   Includes chronic bronchitis …

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regulation of resp.

The activity of the respiratory centers is regulated by the O2, CO2 and H+ content of the blood. Carbon dioxide and H+ are most important. CO2 dissolves in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which  bathes receptors sensitive to H+ on the ventral aspect of the medulla. Stimulation of these receptors is responsible …

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REGRESSIVE STAINING

Staining-an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image. Staining may be loosely defined as treating tissue or cells with a reagent or a series of reagents so that it acquires a color, usually no particles of dye are seen and stained element is transparent. Staining always involves the visual …

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Regressive Alteration-III

Text book of oral pathology Shafer’s, 5 & 6th edition Color Atlas of Oral Diseases Cawson, R.  2nd edition Oral  and Maxillofacial Pathology Neville, Brad W.  2nd Lucas’s Pathology Of Tumor’s of the Oral Tissues Cawson, R. A., Bennie, W. H 5th edition EXTERNAL Periapical inflammation Reimplantation of teeth Tumors …

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Regressive Alteration-I

Macroscopic Changes: Form : starts at early age Affected by wear and attrition Loss of incisal protuberances, occlusal, incisal, interproximal wear, loss of structural details of enamel is noted over time. Perikymata, imbrication lines are lost giving enamel a flat appearance   Also called as tooth surface loss/ non carious …

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REG. OF RESP- FINAL

Anoxia- The absence of oxygen from the body/es gases, blood, or tissues. Apnea- Absence of spontaneous respiration. Asphyxia- The condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function. Bradypnea- Abnormally slow rate of respiration; usually less than 10 breathes per minute. Dyspnea- Difficult or labored …

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red cell membrane

While a normal red cell can deform with linear extensions of up to approximately 250%, a 3% to 4% increase in surface area results in cell lysis. RBC plasma membrane is an envelope composed of cholesterol and phospholipids anchored to a 2-dimensional elastic network of skeletal proteins through cytoplasmic domains …

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RBC Disorders 1

It is an adult form of anemia Associated with gastric atrophy and loss of intrinsic factor. Lack of absorption of vit B12 Rare before the age of 30 years Females are commonly affected   Glossitis Inflamed tongue Beefy red in color, either entirely or in patches over dorsum and lateral …

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radiography for special patient

Acute Suppurative Osteomyelitis- A rapidly destructive inflammatory process that consists of granulation tissue, purulent exudate and islands of nonvital bone (sequestrum) Extension of untreated periapical abscess Minor traumatic incidents Previous high dose of radiation   Clinical Features Portal of entry for the infection through diffuse periodontal disease. At any age, …

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Pulp & periapical Pathologies 4

At  the end of the lecture student should describe — pathophysiology of osteomyelitis  classification of osteomyelitis etilogy. Clinical features, radiological features histological features and treatment of acute osteomyelitis etilogy. Clinical features, radiological features histological features and treatment of chronic osteomyelitis Acute Suppurative Osteomyelitis- A rapidly destructive inflammatory process that consists …

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PROPERTIES OF LIGHT

Properties of light Electromagnetic spectrum Wavelength White light Color temperature Amplitude Emission spectrum Reflection, absorption , refraction , frequency Refractive index Filters   EXCITER  FILTERS – used in fluoresence microscopy for transmitting light of a selected wavelength. BARRIER FILTERS ( SECONDARY FILTERS) –   – used to protect the retina from …

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Progressive Staining

In bacteriology- Simple Staining(they provide color contrast , but impart same color to all bacteria. e.g- methylene blue, basic fuschin ) Negative Staining(staining-they provide a uniformly colored background against which the unstained bacteria stand out in contrast. e.g-India ink for spirochetes ) Impregnation methods(method-cells and structure too thin to be …

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