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Oral Pathology

mineral metaboism-final.1pptx

Phosphorus Phosphorous is excreted primarily through the urine. Almost 2/3rd of total phosphorous that is excreted is found in the urine as phosphate of various cations phosphorous found in the feces is the non-absorbed form of phosphorous.   Formation of bones Like calcium, important component of teeth. Important constituent of …

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metabolic dist-protein & lipid part 1

    At the end of the lecture students should describe- The sources of protein and lipid Different functions of protein and lipid and The metabolic disorders associated with protein and lipid metabolism (kwashioker & gaout).   Sources – Animal sources:milk,milk products, eggs,meat,fish etc. Plant sources-pulses,cereals,dry fruits,nuts beans etc. Animal proteins …

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metabolic disorders

Proteins are complex organic nitrogenous compounds. They are indispensible constituents of the diet because they are the only source of the essential amino acids which include valine,lysine,leucine,isoleucine,phenylalanine,methionine,threonine,tryptophan,histidine and arginine. Sources – Animal sources:milk,milk products, eggs,meat,fish etc. Plant sources-pulses,cereals,dry fruits,nuts beans etc.   Disturbances in protein metabolism Protein energy malnutrition is …

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Melanoma

Radial growth phase Initial growth phase Lasts for many years Confined to epidermis Normal shedding of neoplastic cells Penetrating cells destroyed by immune response Vertical growth phase Neoplastic cells populate dermis Increased virulence of neoplastic cells Decreased immune response Metastasis possible   Most common in Blacks Most common Oral Melanoma …

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MELANOCYTES

Introduction Embryology Structure Ultrastructure Melanosomes Melanogenesis Melanin Regional variation Methods of demonstration Disorders of melanin pigmentation   Absorption of uv light Scavenger of damaging free radical Can oxidize NADH in vitro and participate in other oxidation reduction reactions Melanocytes in stria vascularis also known as intermediate cells Melanocytes help proper …

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MAX SINUS I final

Introduction Development Anatomy Histology Blood supply, Venous supply, Lymphatic supply Functions Examination Investigations Pathologies of maxillary sinus (developmental anomalies)   The sinus is also known as the antrum based on the Greek meaning “cave”. The maxillary sinus is a part of series of pneumatic  cavities, which are restricted to the …

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Max sinus 3 final

Immediate symptoms: Regurgitation of liquids from the mouth into the nose. Unilateral epistaxis due to blood in maxillary sinus escaping through the nasal ostium. Escape of air from the mouth into the nose and an alteration in vocal resonance. An inability to blow out the cheeks and smoke cigarettes   …

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MAX SINUS 2 final

Introduction Development Anatomy Histology Blood supply, Venous supply, Lymphatic supply Functions Examination Investigations Pathologies of maxillary sinus (developmental anomalies)   Clinical Features   It is usually asymptomatic, and is discovered on a routine radiograph. Radiographic Features   The image of thickened mucosa is readily detectable in the radiograph as a …

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MASTICATION

At the end of lecture student should be able to understand – Definition Significance of mastication Chewing cycle Masticatory sequence Muscles of mastication Muscle activity   Early in the opening phase,   digastric muscles become active and remain until maximum opening position During the opening phase,   masseter, temporalis, medial …

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markers

Pereira MC, Oliveira DT, Landman G, Kowalski LP. Histologic subtypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma: prognostic relevance. J Can Dent Assoc 2007;73:339-44. Banerjee AG, Bhattacharyya I, Vishwanatha JK. Identification of genes and molecular pathways involved in the progression of premalignant oral epithelia. Mol Cancer Ther 2005;4:865-75. de Aguiar AF, Jr., …

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mandi frac

At the end of the session the learners should be able to- Classify the different types of mandibular  fractures. Examine the patient with mandibular fracture. Prescribe and interpret appropriate radiograph for the patient with mandibular fracture. Enumerate the various treatment modalities for facial fractures It has been reported that fractures …

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Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors-I

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is not encapsulated Infiltrate to surrounding tissue. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes. Distant metastasis to lung, bone, brain and subcutaneous tissue is common.   Histopathologic grades based on Amount of cyst formation Degree of cytologic atypia Relative no. of mucous, epidermoid ,& intermediate cells HISTOPATHOLOGICAL GRADES

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Malign.Tumors-C.T.- IV Validated

Oral lesions: most commonly –posterior  hard palate, buccal vestibule, gingival Rapidly growing swelling ,may ulcerate Large, fungating, necrotic, foul-smelling masses Underlying bone involvement: tooth mobility & pain, paresthesia of mental nerve   The absence of systemic symptoms is      signified by adding ‘A’ to the stage   The presence of systemic …

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Malig.Tumors-C.T.- V validated

40-70 years of age. Sources of metastatic tumors to oral region are cancers in breast, lung ,kidney, bone. Initially  asymptomatic Slight discomfort / pain, paresthesia. Teeth –loose, extruded, difficult mastication. Metastatic tumors of soft tissue Resembles hyperplastic/ reactive lesion   Clinical features, Histopathological features of               Plasmacytoma & Multiple myeloma Clinical …

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lymphadenopathy

At the end of the seminar learner should be able to:- Enumatare the infectious, immunological, malignant and other causes of cervical lymphadenopathy. Differentiate the cervical lymphadenopathy from clinical examination. Enumarate the imaging methods for cervical lymphadenopathy. Enumarate the characteristic features of lymph node on various imaging . Cervical lymphadenopathy is …

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lymph and lymphatics

Function of Lymphatics in different parts of body : Gastro intestinal tract :- Almost all of the fats absorbed from the intestinal tract are not carried in the portal blood but instead are absorbed into the intestinal lymphatics and then conducted to the systemic circulating blood by way of the …

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lip

White lesions Candidiasis Squamous cell papilloma Verruca vulgaris Condyloma Lichen planus Lichenoid drug eruption Actinic keratosis Squamous cell carcinoma Snuff dipper’s lesion Cigarette smoker’s lip Focal epithelial hyperplasia Red lesions Hemangioma Sturge-Weber syndrome Thrombocytopenic purpura Rendu-Osler-Weber disease Kaposi’s sarcoma Contact allergy   Ulcerative lesions Traumatic ulcer aphthous ulcer Herpes simplex …

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LICHEN PLANUS

Recognised by its considerable epithelial thickening Distinguished by heavy, flat plaques from of reticular LP Resembles homogenous leukoplakia with striae in border zone Locations – buccal mucosa, tongue Can be derived from irritation of already existing LP Frequently seen in smokers Resolves in only 7% of cases Can be seen …

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leukoplakia1

Uncoordinated cellular proliferation . Loss in the uniformity of the individual cells, as well as a loss in their architectural orientation. Pleomorphism (variation in size and shape) Hyper chromatic  nuclei. Nuclear: cytoplasmic  ratio increases from 1:4 to 1:1, at the expense of the cytoplasmic volume. Increased mitosis. Usual proliferative organization …

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langerhan cells

In skin infections, the local Langerhans cells take up and process microbial antigens to become fully functional antigen-presenting cells. Generally, dendritic cells in tissue are active in the capture, uptake and processing of antigens. Once dendritic cells arrive in secondary lymphoid tissue, however, they lose these properties while gaining the capacity to interact with naive T-cells. LCH In the rare …

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LAMINA DURA

THE APPEARANCE OF THE LAMINA DURA ON RADIOGRAPH It may vary depending on the direction of beam When the x-ray beam is directed through the relatively long expanse of the structure, the lamina dura appears radiopaque and well defined When the beam is directed obliquely, it appears more  diffuse or …

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