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Orthodontics

Orthodontic Cements

INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION OF CEMENTS ZINC PHOSPHATE CEMENT ZINC POLYCARBOXYLATE CEMENT GLASS IONOMER CEMENT RESIN IONOMER HYBRID CEMENTS IN BANDING CEMENTS IN BONDING NEWER PRODUCTS Cements are routinely used for orthodontic purposes. Proper cementation of the bands and bonding of the brackets plays an important role for the betterment of treatment …

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Orthodontic Brackets-part 1

1955 Acid etch by Buonocore 1965 Direct bonding by Newman 1970 bisGMA widely used for bonding Complex wire bending skills needed for refined tooth movement in std E W Begg technique used by uninformed ,unskilled & poorly trained operators 1972 six keys to normal occlusion            Lawrence F.Andrews “All you can …

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Orthodontic Archwires

Orthodontic wires which generate the biomechanical forces communicated  through brackets for tooth movement ,are central to the practice of profession.           In  the rational selection of wires for a particular treatment ,the orthodontist should consider a variety of factors ,including the amount of force delivery that is desired ,the elastic …

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ORTHODONTIC ADHESIVES

Introduction Common points about adhesives Materials used as adhesives Composites Generations of adhesive Other adhesive materials Clinical application of adhesives–  Bonding in Orthodontics Updates Conclusion According to tolerance of moisture HYDROPHOBIC  e.g./ conventional BIS-GMA These adhesives require etching and absolute dry environment HYDROPHILLIC  e.g./GIC’S  RMGIC’S Achieves chemical adhesion without etching …

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ORTHO

Comprehensive orthodontic treatment Comprehensive orthodontic treatment is undertaken for problems that involve alignment of the teeth, how the jaws function and how the top and bottom teeth fit together. The goal of comprehensive orthodontic treatment is to correct the identified problem and restore the occlusion   to its optimum. Treatment may …

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Ortho in CLEFT

An intergrated approach is essential in management of patients with orofacial clefts Adult patients often need a synergistic intervention by  Orthodontist & Surgeon for the final rehablitation Orthopedic & surgical expansion of the scarred constricted maxilla, orthodontic preparation & completion, Orthognathic reconstruction with adequate bone grafts offers the function & …

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Oral Habits

ACCORDING TO MORIS AND BOHANNA(1969)  pressure habit  non pressure habit  biting  habit KLEIN CLASSIFICATION(1971)   intentional habits(meaningful)   non intentional habits(empty habits) ACCORDING TO FINN (1987)   compulsive habits   non compulsive habits   muscular +passive object (nail biting)   passive object (pillowing)   functional disturbance (mouth breathing) DIGIT SUCKING …

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Oral Habits 2

Introduction Definition classification common oral Habits in children                  Thumb sucking   Tongue thrusting   Mouth Breathing Other habits   Bruxism   Lip Biting   Pillowing habit   Frenum Thrusting   Bobby-pin opening A number of theories have been put forward to explain why thumb sucking occurs. Freudian theory:  …

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Oral Habits

A wide variety of oral habits in the infants and young children has been the center of much controversy for many years.  Orthodontist, Parents, pediatricians, psychologist, speech pathologist and dentists have discussed and argued the significance of the oral habits, each from the view point of his/her expertise and/ or …

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Oral Habit-II Contd..

DEFINITION: Brauer-1965: A tongue thrust was said to be present if the tongue was observed thrusting between and the teeth did not close in centric occlusion during deglutition. Tulley 1969 : states tongue thrust as the forward most of the tongue tip between the teeth to meet the lower lip …

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OPEN BITE

Tongue posture and function should be primary consideration. Differentiation between primary causal and secondary adaptive or compensatory dysfunction is essential. Functional analysis also must bassess the magnitude of force ( i,e simple pressing versus strong protractive action). Cephalometric analysis can localise the nature of open bite – Skeletal/Dental. Therapy depends …

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OPEN BITE

  Anterior open bite is one of the most difficult orthodontic problems to correct.   The etiology of anterior open bite may be both complex and difficult to establish and yet is critical in developing treatment regimen that will produce stability and satisfactory cosmetic results Treatment depends on at least …

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Open bite

Open bite is a malocclusion that occurs in the vertical plane, characterized by lack of vertical overlap between the maxillary and mandibular dentition. Open bite can occur in the anterior and the posterior region and are called anterior open bite and posterior open bite respectively Open bite is defined as …

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Occlusograms

Individualized Arch Forms: The occlusal shape of each tooth can then be traced in an ideal position on this basic arch, and a customized ideal lower arch form can be constructed and used throughout treatment. Occlusal Simulations: Marcotte and Burstone suggested setting the maxillary teeth around an idealized lower arch …

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Occlusion Basics

NORMAL OCCLUSION-in orthodontics is ANGLES CLASS 1 OCCLUSION The mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary 1st molar should occlude in the mesiobuccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar. If this molar relationship existed and the teeth were arranged on a smoothly curving line of occlusion normal occlusion would result THE LINE …

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Introduction Epidemiology Normal upper airway anatomy Etiology & pathogenesis Clinical features Diagnostic aids Treatment modalities Conclusion Mc Namara found 1-9% prevalence of OSAS Recent study by Young et al suggested prevalence of OSAS to be at least 9% in males & 4% in females Lugaresi reported incidence of snoring to …

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Normal Occlusion

INTRODUCTION HISTORY INTRAARCH TOOTH ALIGNMENT INTERARCH TOOTH ALIGNMENT CENTRIC STOPS CENTRIC RELATION CENTRIC OCCLUSION COMMON OCCLUSAL RELATION OF POSTERIOR TEETH. COMMON OCCLUSAL RELATION OF ANTERIOR TEETH. FACTORS AND FORCES DETERMINING TOOTH POSITION. ANDREWS SIX KEYS TO OPTIMAL OCCLUSION CRITERIA FOR GOOD OCCLUSION The alignment and occlusion of the dentition are …

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Non-Extraction Treatment Modality

Traditionally Begg practitioners were branded as extractionists.  Advances in mechanotherapy, and changes in treatment concepts have changed this opinion about the Begg technique and curtailed the need for extraction in contemporary treatment.     The prevalence of indiscriminate extractions in earlier decades can partly be blamed on over use of  …

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Nickel Titanium

INTRODUCTION HISTORY EVOLUTION OF ARCHWIRE MATERIALS METALLURGY NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS – GENERATIONS STRUCTURE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NITINOL SHAPE MEMORY EFFECT AND NICKEL – TITANIUM ALLOY SUPERELASTICITY CLASSIFICATION CHINESE NITI JAPANESE NITI COPPER –NITI CV NITI REVERSE CURVE NITI GOLD NITI DUAL FLEX ARCH WIRES SUPERCABLE WIRE TURBO WIRE (BRAIDED PREFORMED NICKEL-TITANIUM) …

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The Intelligent Archwire

The crystallographic,tri-dimensional lattice of the Ni-Ti alloy is present in 2 phases: Martensite phase:the lattice is body-centered  (cubic or tetragonal) Austenitic phase: the lattice is face – centered (hexagonal close packed) An intermediate rhombohedral ‘R’phase with a simple hexagonal lattice has also been identified. The deflection in an austenitic archwire …

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Shape Memory Alloys

Introduction :-   It refers to the ability of the material to remember its original shape after being plastically deformed while in martensite form .       In typical application Certain shape is set when the alloy is maintained at an elevated temperature, above martensite – austenite transition temperature .   …

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NICKEL TITANIUM ALLOYS (2)

The ability of material to remember its original shape after being plastically deformed’   A certain shape is set at elevated temperatures (above the TTR).When the alloy is cooled below the TTR, it can be plastically deformed but when it is heated again the original shape is restored.       The most …

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