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Orthodontics

Upper Airway constiction and its Effects on Growth & Development-Dr-Anusha

                               CONTENTS 1.HISTORY 2.UPPER AIRWAY STRUCTURE – PARTS 3.RESPIRATORY MECHANICS 4.CAUSES OF UPPER AIRWAY CONSTRICTION 5.NASO – REPIRATORY FUNCTION AND CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH 6.HEAD POSTURE 7.DIAGNOSIS 8. HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION 9.CLASSIFICATION OF RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTION 10.LONG FACE SYNDROME 11.MOUTHBREATHING AND DENTOFACIAL DEFORMITIES 12.ROLE OF TONSILS AND ADENOIDS 13.RHINITIS 14.SEQUELA OF UPPER …

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Update of othodontic adhesives

Introduction Common points about adhesives Materials used as adhesives Composites Generations of adhesive Other adhesive materials Clinical application of adhesives–  Bonding in Orthodontics Updates Conclusion Setting Reaction: The hydrogen ions of the acid attack the glass particles in the presence of water  releasing calcium, strontium, and aluminium ions. The metal …

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ultrasonography

Historical Perspective of Ultrasound PIERRE CURIE, 1880 -PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT-When mechanical stress is applied to a quartz crystal , it produced electric potential. REVERSE PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT-By applying silver to the   face of the crystal and inducing pressure, mechanical changes occurs in the crystal producing sound waves Uses of  echomyography of tongue …

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TYPES OF TORQUEING AUXILIARY

The lingual torquing effect is on account of two factors:          1. Vertical plane changes to horizontal.          2. Smaller circle opens to large.                    Both these effects force the tips of the spurs to press in a lingual direction against the gingival portion of the crown. Reciprocally, the inter …

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Twin block-gerard

These are functional appliances designed to enhance forward mandibular growth in the treatment of distal occlusion by encouraging a functional displacement of mandibular condyles downards and forwards in the glenoid fossa. Repositioning creates a positive proprioceptive response in the muscles of mastication. This is  fundamental functional mechanism of habitual dentition …

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TWIN BLOCK EFFECTS

The bite blocks acts as a guiding mechanism causing the mandible to be displaced downward and forward. The unfavorable cuspal contacts of a distal occlusion are replaced by favorable proprioceptive contacts on the inclined planes of twin-blocks to correct the malocclusion & to free the mandible from its locked distal …

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Twin block

Total protrusion path is calculated by measuring the overjet in most retruded position and then in the most maximal protrusion and finding the difference between the two. The initial activation should not exceed 70% of the protrusive path. Average 5 – 10 mm on initial activation, depending upon the freedom …

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Twin block (2)

This is  fundamental functional mechanism of habitual dentition occlusal forces transmitted through the dentition provide a constant stimulus to influence the rate of growth and trabacular structure of supporting bone this sensory feed back  mechanism controls muscular activity and provides a  functional stimulus or deterrent to mandibular bone growth. In …

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tweeds

First degree anchorage preparation. Applicable to all malocclusions with ANB angles ranging from 0* to 4*,in which facial esthetics are good and in which total discrepancy does not exceed 10 mm. First degree means the mandibular terminal molars must always be upright and maintained in such an upright position as …

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TWEED-MERRIFIELD

Second molars are tipped to its desired anchorage prepared position. After space is closed a compensating bend is placed mesial to maintain its tip First molars are tipped to an anchorage prepared position.Similar compensation bend is placed mesially to maintain its tip. Second premolar is tipped distally to its anchorage …

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Tweed-Merrifield Philosophy

   First degree anchorage preparation:       Minimal anchorage preparation  required.       applicable in : malocclusions with ANB 0-4deg ,facial       esthetics are good, total discrepancy does not exceed 10mm.       Mandibular anchor molars uprighted /maintained in their upright positions to prevent being elongated by Class II elastics.       The direction of …

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TWEED-MERRIFIELD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE

Merrifields innovations give the modern orthodontist a more accurate,reliable,precise,efficient and practical protocol of diagnosis and treatment.It allows the clinician ti do the following… – Define objectives for the face,dentition,and skeletal pattern – Properly diagnose the malocclusion – Use the edgewise appliance to reach the predetermined objectives efficiently.   This universally …

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TWEED PHILOSOPHY

Introduction :    History and evolution of the edgewise appliance.    Dr.E.H.Angle, Dr. Charles Tweed, Dr.Levern Merrifield—contributions to the development of edgewise appliance The Tweed philosophy The Tweed technique The Tweed Merrifield philosophy The Tweed Merrifield technique Conclusion Based on the then prevalent assumption that,if cuspal interdigitation of teeth were made …

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TREATMENT OF CLASS III MALOCCLUSION

McGuigan (1966) – Inheritance of class III malocclusion in Hapsburg Family, having the distinct characteristics of prognathic lower jaw. Litton et al (1970) – Dental characteristics of class III are related to genetic inheritance. Functional factors – Anteriorly positioned tongue believed to be a local epigenetic factor. Mental diseases – …

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Trajectories and rotations – 6

Hierarchy of effectiveness in long-face class II treatment   HP headgear to functional appliance       ht Bite blocks on functional appliance       High-pull headgear to maxillary splint High-pull headgear to molars. Ideal patients for RME treatment. Full cusp cross bite with a skeletal component Some degree of dental as well …

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TPA

Computer based strain gauge system Two units representing rt. & lt. Molars with lingual attachments Attachments placed vertically,parallel & facing each other on same plane Attachments fastened to movable clutches with strain gauge sensors SAGITTAL AND HORIZONTAL FORCES RECORDED BY FOUR FORCE RECORDERS AND MOMENTS RECORDED BY TWO MOMENT RECORDERS …

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TORQUE14

  True third-order clearances depend upon the actual wire and slot dimensions and in effet upon the stiffness of the bracket slot. In response to the third-order activation the slot will open slightly as the wire attempts to deactivate, torsionally within it.   -Overcorrect to compensate for relapse -Overcorrect-angle of …

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Torque new (2)

Proper buccolingual inclination of anterior and posterior teeth is essential to provide better esthetic, stability and functional occlusal relationship. With Edgewise appliance Torque or buccolingual inclination was achieved by third order bends placed in arch wire. With Begg appliance inclination was achieved with auxiliaries. But today, majority of orthodontic brackets …

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torque in pea

   Eliades in AJO 2004 showed Bracket slot manufacturing introduces metal particles, grooves and striation, which can preclude the full engagement of the wire in the slot wall.              All slot wall whether it is a stainless brackets, plastic brackets, ceramic brackets as well as brackets with metal inserts have a …

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TORQUE _AND_ITS_APPLICATION

Torque is  probably one of the most important and potent forces of orthodontic treatment mechanism  with proper understanding and with systemic technical approach torque is not difficult to accomplish   The operator’s ability to control torque  properly will mean the difference between artistically treated case that has all esthetic beauty …

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TOOTHERUPTION

During evolution several significant changes took place in the jaws and teeth. When the reptilian evolve to mammalian , the dentition went from “polyphydont ” (many set of teeth) to  “diphydont ” (only two sets of teeth) and then to “homodent ” (all of same  teeth) to “heterodent”(different types of …

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tooth__move_2002

Affects most, if not all, teeth; maxillary incisors more susceptible than other teeth. Could be moderate or severe but commonly in the range of up to 2.5 mm. Etiology largely unknown but predisposing factors include conical roots with pointed apices, distorted tooth form, or a history of trauma. Orthodontics and …

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tooth dev and eruption final2

During evolution several significant changes took place in the jaws and teeth. When the reptilian evolve to mammalian , the dentition went from “polyphydont ” (many set of teeth) to  “diphydont ” (only two sets of teeth) and then to “homodent ” (all of same  teeth) to “heterodent”(different types of …

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