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Orthodontics

CANINE RETRACTION-FINAL

   As the tooth uprights the moment decreases until the wire no longer binds.  Then the canine retracts along the arch wire till distal crown tipping again causes binding.  This process is repeated until the tooth is retracted or the force  gets depleted.This initial tipping of crown followed by root …

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Canine Impaction1.

Various treatment options: No treatment, but with periodic evaluation for pathologic changes. Interceptive removal of the deciduous canine (Ericson and Kurol, 1988). Surgical exposure of the canine and orthodontic alignment (Bishara, 1992) Auto transplantation of the canine (Shaw et al., 1981, Sagne et al., 1986 Cantilever System   jco 2000 nov …

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Canine Calcification Stages

Knowledge of the stage of maturation that a child has attained helps in evaluating his or her progression through expected developmental events. Such information is clinically important in: Helps interdisciplinary health teams assessing patients with various types of short stature, endocrine disorders, and/or metabolic diseases.   Its utility is well …

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Calcium

Calcium

Mediates excitation and contraction of muscle fibers. Necessary for transmission of nerve impulses. Ca-Calmodulin complex regulates micro-filament mediated processes. In myocardium, Ca prolongs systole. Used in bone and teeth formation. Ca and cAMP are second messengers in different hormones. Secretion of hormones such as PTH, calcitonin, vasopressin etc. In blood …

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Combination Anchorage Technique

CONTENTS Introduction Advantages and Disadvantages  of Begg’s V/S straight wire appliances. Bracket design Retention pins Bracket and tube placement Arch wires –  Dual flex 1 &                  Dual flex 2 Treatment Treatment phases and Goals Treatment considerations Conclusions INTRODUCTION What’s CAT  ? Combination anchorage technique:  Begg technique in orthodontics is …

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Burstone

The introduction of radiographic cephalometrics in 1934 by Hofrath in Germany and Broadbent in the United states provided both a research and a clinical tool for the study of malocclusion and underlying skeletal disproportions.   Cephalometric films could be used to evaluate dentofacial proportions and clarify the anatomic basis for a …

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BURSTONE’S

GIVE EQUAL ALPHA AND BETA BENDS AND PLACE THE LOOPS OFFCENTERED TOWARDS POSTERIORS GIVE MORE BETA BEND AND PLACE THE LOOP OFFCENTERED TOWARDS ANTERIORS GIVE EQUAL ALPHA AND BETA BENDS AND PLACE THE LOOPS AT CENTER AND USE HEADGEAR TO CONTROL  THE  POSTERIOR SEGMENT FABRICATED IN TMA WIRE LOW LOAD …

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BURSTONE..

Extraction space can be closed by: Anterior retraction alone. Combination of anterior retraction and posterior protraction Posterior protraction alone. Anchorage classification. Group A Anchorage, the posterior teeth contribute less than one quarter to total space closure. Group B Anchorage,the posterior teeth contribute from one-quarter to one half to total space …

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BURSTONE (2)

INTRODUCTION   The introduction of radiographic cephalometrics in 1934 by Hofrath in Germany and Broadbent in the United states provided both a research and a clinical tool for the study of malocclusion and underlying skeletal disproportions.   Cephalometric films could be used to evaluate dentofacial proportions and clarify the anatomic basis …

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BTM12-Alopecia totalis..

BTM12-Alopecia totalis

  Mary was the only child of her parents, residing in Denver, Colorado. Her father, disappointed at not having a son, pushed Mary to participate in all kinds of boys’ sport activities. Consequently, she was stressed severely, and at age 6 developed permanent alopecia totalis. When Victor developed alopecia, we …

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BTM11-Allergy and asthma.

All subjects in both groups had been treated either by a SWA or by the Tweed technique.  In both methods dental roots are frequently moved redundantly, into contact or through compact plates of bone.  Moreover, both techniques advocate intra-bracket slot root torque mechanics, generating traumatic forces. As has been reported …

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BTM9-Root Resorption

Palatal root torque with rectangular wires was implemented, in order to restore proper root angulation.  Root torque in this fashion usually generates traumatic forces.  All of these unwarranted apical movements could have been avoided by adherence to proper mechanical principles that would have tipped the roots controllably. Prime causative factors …

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BTM7-Inflammation.

Orthodontic forces strain paradental tissues, causing release of vasoactive neurotransmitters from trigeminal nerve endings, which stimulate endothelial cells to bind circulating leukocytes, thus triggring an inflammatory reaction in both areas of  PDL tension and compression. Aside from being a vasoactive    neurotransmitter, ushering leukocytes into the strained PDL, we found it …

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BTM6-Electricity

Measurements of gamma radiation emitted from mandibles of 5 cats treated with 20μA d.c. application to one side of the jaw, revealed significantly increased osteogenic activity in the treated side. This finding was confirmed by cyclic nucleotide and prostaglandin immunohistochemical tests. A short term (14 d) experiment in cats revealed …

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BTM4-Histology.

Lactate dehydrogenase Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Succinic dehydrogenase Acid phosphatase Aminopeptidase M Aryl sulfatase Prostaglandin synthetase Specific enzymes can be localized and identified in mechanically-stressed paradental cells. Cellular enzymatic activity is enhanced by orthodontic forces. Monitoring enzymatic fluctuations in the gingival crevicular fluids may have diagnostic value.

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BTM1-Introduction.

Interaction of target cells with these signal molecules Target cells’ responses: synthesis and secretion of autocrines and paracrines, DNA and RNA, as well as molecules involved in the remodeling of the PDL, alveolar bone, and dental roots Signal molecules may act synergistically Binding of circulating leukocytes to capillary endothelial cells …

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BRAKET POSTNG

  Roth in 1975 evaluated the pre-  adjusted   bracket system after he had   used it for 5 years.   In 1981 he modified the appliance by   altering the amount of pre-adjustment   built into the brackets.   His objectives were to have the teeth in   overcorrected …

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BRACKETS IN ORTHO..

Joining together of two edgewise brackets “SIAMESE TWIN BRACKET” The space between two brackets was approx 0.050 Initially for upper central incisors and molars. Terminology was changed to -“TWIN BRACKET”. This was the next development for bringing about  efficient tooth rotation. He soldered auxiliary rotation arm that abutted  against the …

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Brackets in Ortho

A bracket is a device that projects horizontally to provide support. Orthodontic brackets bonded/banded to enamel acts like an handle which provides the means to transfer the force applied by the activated arch-wire to the tooth. The term is used only when referring to those devices that are open in …

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