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Orthodontics

Combination Anchorage Technique

CONTENTS Introduction Advantages and Disadvantages  of Begg’s V/S straight wire appliances. Bracket design Retention pins Bracket and tube placement Arch wires –  Dual flex 1 &                  Dual flex 2 Treatment Treatment phases and Goals Treatment considerations Conclusions INTRODUCTION What’s CAT  ? Combination anchorage technique:  Begg technique in orthodontics is …

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BTM7-Inflammation.

Orthodontic forces strain paradental tissues, causing release of vasoactive neurotransmitters from trigeminal nerve endings, which stimulate endothelial cells to bind circulating leukocytes, thus triggring an inflammatory reaction in both areas of  PDL tension and compression. Aside from being a vasoactive    neurotransmitter, ushering leukocytes into the strained PDL, we found it …

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BTM4-Histology.

Lactate dehydrogenase Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Succinic dehydrogenase Acid phosphatase Aminopeptidase M Aryl sulfatase Prostaglandin synthetase Specific enzymes can be localized and identified in mechanically-stressed paradental cells. Cellular enzymatic activity is enhanced by orthodontic forces. Monitoring enzymatic fluctuations in the gingival crevicular fluids may have diagnostic value.

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