The Spine & Spinal Cord

Recognise and name the following parts of a typical vertebra in osteological specimens or in suitable imaging: body, pedicle, lamina, transverse process, spinous process, articular surfaces Recognise the distinctive features of cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae Explain the roles of intervertebral discs, ligaments and muscles in load bearing in the …

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SLE

Autoimmune Disease Systemic Autoimmune Disease Responses seen in SLE Autoantibodies found in SLE   Loss of self-non-self recognition Diversification of antigen-driven responses Hyperactivity of T & B Cells Formation of immune complexes Type III hypersensitivity reaction

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S1_GIdrugs_000

Peptic ulcer disease/dyspepsia GORD Inflammatory bowel disease Irritable bowel syndrome Diarrhoea Constipation Pancreatitis   Dyspepsia:   upper abdo pain/discomfort   (fullness, bloating, distension, nausea) Peptic ulcers   defects in mucosa extending through   muscularis mucosae Prevalence   PUD 5-10% lifetime   dyspepsia 25-40% Aetiology (most common) H.pylori NSAIDs

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S1_GIdrugs_000

Peptic ulcer disease/dyspepsia GORD Inflammatory bowel disease Irritable bowel syndrome Diarrhoea Constipation Pancreatitis   Antiinflammatory Analgesic Antipyretic Chemically heterogeneous Reversible competitive inhibitors of COX activity (Aspirin irreversible) Reduce prostaglandin synthesis (COX-1) ↓ Mucus ↓ bicarbonate ↓ blood flow ↓ proliferation of cells ↑ gastric acid secretion Reduce production of superoxide …

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S1_DrugsandtheKidney_000

Frusemide oral bioavailability between 10 and 90% Acts at luminal side of thick ascending limb(NaK2Cl transporter) Highly protein bound Rebound after single dose Half-life 4 hours   [Slide 18 Content] Bendrofluazide, Metolazone   Site of action distal convoluted tubule   blocks electroneutral Na/Cl  exchanger (NCCT) Reaches site of action in …

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S1_CNS_therapeutics_000

Mechanism of Action Epileptiform event –  a sudden, excessive depolarisation of cerebral neurones which may remain localised (focal epilepsy) or spread (generalised epilepsy) Anti-epileptic agents thus prevent depolarisation of neurones:   inhibition of excitatory neurotransmitters   direct membrane stabilisation   stimulation of inhibitory neurotransmitters   Initiation of therapy Aim for …

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S1_Antiarrhythmicdrugs_000

Physiology of normal cardiac rhythm Definition and mechanisms of arrhythmias Classification of drugs to treat arrhythmias Important anti-arrhythmic drugs (mechanism and pharmacological characteristics) Arrhythmias in clinical practice   Cardiac myocytes are electrically excitable Resting intracellular voltage of myocardial cells is negative -90mV (SA node is -40mV) Resting state – K+ …

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Pulmonary

Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Transmitted through inhalation of infected droplets Primary Single granuloma  within parenchyma and hilar lymph nodes (Ghon complex). Infection does not progress (most common). Progressive primary pneumonia Miliary dissemination (blood stream). Dilatation of bronchi and bronchioles secondary to chronic inflammation Associated conditions Obstruction Cystic fibrosis Immotile cilia …

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PSY402C09

Used medicinally and recreationally from early Greek and Roman times Opium and laudanum (opium combined with alcohol) were used to treat almost all known diseases Morphine was isolated from opium in the early 1800’s and since then has been the most effective treatment for severe pain   Reduction or inhibition …

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PoisionDrugs

After reviewing the text on these sections, I can’t find any reason to actually cover them in class. I’d recommend that we just tell the students to be sure to read and review it.     Eliminate the substance Enhance GI motility Alkalinize urine Filter w/ dialysis Promote emesis (rare)

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PharmIntro

How are drugs described and referenced? What are the relevant drug laws and regulations? What are the factors affecting how drugs are given? What are some of the key terms?   Names Classification (including prototype) Mechanism of Action Kinetics Indications Contraindications Side Effects Interactions Routes of Administration Dosage How Supplied …

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Pharmacotherapy of Shock

Inadequate tissue perfusion Sustained loss of effective circulatory blood volume Breakdown of cellular metabolism and microcirculatory homeostasis Hypoperfusion of peripheral tissue that leads to a diminutive transcapillary exchange function Disproportion between VO2 and DO2   Vasoactive drugs are an important pharmacologic defense in the treatment of shock. May be required …

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Pharmacotherapy -Adjuvant Analgesics

Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists Clonidine and tizanidine used for chronic pain of any type Tizanidine usually better tolerated Tizanidine starting dose 1–2 mg/d; usual maximum dose up to 40 mg/d   Class  Examples Anticonvulsants  gabapentin, valproate,   phenytoin, carbamazepine,   clonazepam, topiramate,   lamotrigine, tiagabine,   oxcarbazepine, zonisamide,   levetiracetam

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Pharmacological Principles

Chemical name The drug’s chemical composition and molecular structure Generic name (nonproprietary name) Name given by the United States Adopted Name Council Trade name (proprietary name) The drug has a registered trademark; use of the name restricted by the drug’s owner (usually the manufacturer)   Oral Preparations Liquids, elixirs, syrups  …

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Parasympathetic Nervous System – Pharmacy

Protects the retina from excess light Decreases heart rate Promotes glandular secretions Promotes the emptying of hollow organs Promotes the conservation of energy Promotes rest and repair Physiologically antagonizes the sympathetic nervous system   Promotes transmission in postganglionic autonomic fibers Promotes release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla …

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PainMgmt-OlderAdults

Demographics of pain in older adults Overview of pain physiology Discussion of appropriate use of opioids in older adults Discussion of other pain treatment modalities for older adults Overview of ACOVE indicators on pain management   Painful experience continuing for prolonged period of time May or may not be associated …

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NESTER21

“The prognosis for people with common diseases such as bacterial pneumonia and severe staphylococcal infection was grim before the discovery and widespread availability of penicillin in the 1940s.” “Physicians were able to identify the cause of the disease, but they were generally unable to recommend treatments other than bed rest.” …

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NESTER08

“Acquiring genes through gene transfer provides new genetic information to microorganisms, which may allow them to survive changing environments.” “The major source of variation within a bacterial species is mutation.” “In mutations, usually only a single gene changes at any one time.” “In contrast, gene transfer results in many genes …

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molecularvirology

Subtyping – in some viruses, different subtypes are associated with different clinical manifestations e.g. enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and human papillomaviruses. General Epidemiology – by identifying the viral subtypes at different times and geographical locations, one can detect major changes in the epidemiological patterns of infection e.g. HIV and HCV. Investigation of …

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Module_1

ECG Basics How to Analyze a Rhythm Normal Sinus Rhythm Heart Arrhythmias Diagnosing a Myocardial Infarction Advanced 12-Lead Interpretation   To recognize the normal rhythm of the heart – “Normal Sinus Rhythm.” To recognize the 13 most common rhythm disturbances. To recognize an acute myocardial infarction on a 12-lead ECG.

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microlect3Dhaemophilus

A 2-year-old unvaccinated child was seen in the emergency room because of complaints of headache and fever A cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) sample was obtained and sent to the laboratory for culture The Gram stain showed many white blood cells and many gram-negative, small bacilli   What clinical findings led the physician …

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Malaria

The genus Plasmodium contains 127 species in lizards, birds, and mammals. life cycle worked out in a bird species (Plasmodium relictum)  rodent species (P. berghei) important in research (we will do an experimental infection of this parasite in lab) several species in monkeys and apes are similar to human species …

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Local Anesthetics2

A local anesthetic is an agent that interrupts pain impulses in a specific region of the body without a loss of patient consciousness. Normally, the process is completely reversible–the agent does not produce any residual effect on the nerve fiber.     The first local anesthetic was Cocaine which was …

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IntroRadiology

How to approach reading any image What are the different imaging modalities What imaging modality is this Tips and tricks for image interpretation Practice! Practice! Practice!   Identify the patient When was the image taken Are these the proper images The five densities Are the images technically adequate

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inflammation

-reaction of tissues to injury, characterized clinically by heat, swelling, redness, pain, and loss of function; pathologically by vasoconstriction followed by vasodilatation, stasis, hyperemia, accumulation of leukocytes, exudation of fluid, and deposition of fibrin;  and according to some authorities, the processes of repair, the production of new capillaries and fibroblasts, …

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