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Pharmacology

S1_GIdrugs_000

Peptic ulcer disease/dyspepsia GORD Inflammatory bowel disease Irritable bowel syndrome Diarrhoea Constipation Pancreatitis   Dyspepsia:   upper abdo pain/discomfort   (fullness, bloating, distension, nausea) Peptic ulcers   defects in mucosa extending through   muscularis mucosae Prevalence   PUD 5-10% lifetime   dyspepsia 25-40% Aetiology (most common) H.pylori NSAIDs

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S1_GIdrugs_000

Peptic ulcer disease/dyspepsia GORD Inflammatory bowel disease Irritable bowel syndrome Diarrhoea Constipation Pancreatitis   Antiinflammatory Analgesic Antipyretic Chemically heterogeneous Reversible competitive inhibitors of COX activity (Aspirin irreversible) Reduce prostaglandin synthesis (COX-1) ↓ Mucus ↓ bicarbonate ↓ blood flow ↓ proliferation of cells ↑ gastric acid secretion Reduce production of superoxide …

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S1_CNS_therapeutics_000

Mechanism of Action Epileptiform event –  a sudden, excessive depolarisation of cerebral neurones which may remain localised (focal epilepsy) or spread (generalised epilepsy) Anti-epileptic agents thus prevent depolarisation of neurones:   inhibition of excitatory neurotransmitters   direct membrane stabilisation   stimulation of inhibitory neurotransmitters   Initiation of therapy Aim for …

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S1_Antiarrhythmicdrugs_000

Physiology of normal cardiac rhythm Definition and mechanisms of arrhythmias Classification of drugs to treat arrhythmias Important anti-arrhythmic drugs (mechanism and pharmacological characteristics) Arrhythmias in clinical practice   Cardiac myocytes are electrically excitable Resting intracellular voltage of myocardial cells is negative -90mV (SA node is -40mV) Resting state – K+ …

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Pulmonary

Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Transmitted through inhalation of infected droplets Primary Single granuloma  within parenchyma and hilar lymph nodes (Ghon complex). Infection does not progress (most common). Progressive primary pneumonia Miliary dissemination (blood stream). Dilatation of bronchi and bronchioles secondary to chronic inflammation Associated conditions Obstruction Cystic fibrosis Immotile cilia …

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Pharmacotherapy of Shock

Inadequate tissue perfusion Sustained loss of effective circulatory blood volume Breakdown of cellular metabolism and microcirculatory homeostasis Hypoperfusion of peripheral tissue that leads to a diminutive transcapillary exchange function Disproportion between VO2 and DO2   Vasoactive drugs are an important pharmacologic defense in the treatment of shock. May be required …

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Pharmacotherapy -Adjuvant Analgesics

Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists Clonidine and tizanidine used for chronic pain of any type Tizanidine usually better tolerated Tizanidine starting dose 1–2 mg/d; usual maximum dose up to 40 mg/d   Class  Examples Anticonvulsants  gabapentin, valproate,   phenytoin, carbamazepine,   clonazepam, topiramate,   lamotrigine, tiagabine,   oxcarbazepine, zonisamide,   levetiracetam

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Pathologic classification of lupus glomerulonephritis

Mesangial lupus nephritis Focal proliferative lupus nephritis Diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis Membranous lupus nephritis *Mesangial lupus nephritis was add in a 1977 publication (Am J Med 62:12-30, 1977) to the other three categories that were published in 1970 (Ann Intern Med 73:929, 1970)     (“preliminary histologic categories put forward …

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Parasympathetic Nervous System – Pharmacy

Protects the retina from excess light Decreases heart rate Promotes glandular secretions Promotes the emptying of hollow organs Promotes the conservation of energy Promotes rest and repair Physiologically antagonizes the sympathetic nervous system   Promotes transmission in postganglionic autonomic fibers Promotes release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla …

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molecularvirology

Subtyping – in some viruses, different subtypes are associated with different clinical manifestations e.g. enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and human papillomaviruses. General Epidemiology – by identifying the viral subtypes at different times and geographical locations, one can detect major changes in the epidemiological patterns of infection e.g. HIV and HCV. Investigation of …

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