Home / Orthodontics / PHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN


  • Contents
  • Physiology of pain
  • Types of pain
  • Pain receptors
  • Pain pathways
  • Pain suppression system
  • Referred pain
  • Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • Physiologic anatomy
  • Basic characteristics
  • Neurotransmitters and receptors
  • Effect on different organs
  • Neuromuscular coordination of stomatognathic system
  • Neuromuscular structures and function
  • Mastication ,Swallowing, Speech
  • Protective mechanisms like sneezing, coughing


  • Parasympathetic fibers from the 3rd cranial nerve go to the papillary sphincters and ciliary muscles of the eye.
  • Fibers from 7th cranial nerve pass to the lacrimal, nasal and submandibular glands.
  • 9th cranial nerve – to the parotid gland.
  • Preganglionic and postganglionic neurons.

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