• Nutrition is the science of food and its relationship to health.
  • The nutritional sciences deal with the nature and distribution of nutrients in food, their metabolic effects, and the consequences of inadequate food intake.
  • Nutrients are chemical compounds in foods that are absorbed and used to promote health. Some nutrients are essential because they cannot be synthesized by the body and thus must be derived from the diet.
  • Essential nutrients include vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, and some carbohydrates as a source of energy.
  • Nonessential nutrients are those that the body can synthesize from other compounds, although they may also be derived from the diet.
  • Nutrients are generally divided into macronutrients and micronutrients.
  • Macronutrients :They constitute the bulk of the diet and supply energy as well as essential nutrients needed for growth, maintenance, and activity. Carbohydrates, fats (including essential fatty acids), proteins, and water are macronutrients.
    Vitamins, which are classified as water-or fat-soluble, and trace minerals are micronutrients
    Essential trace minerals include iron, iodine, fluorine, zinc, chromium, selenium, manganese, molybdenum, and copper. Except for fluorine and chromium, each of these minerals is incorporated into enzymes or hormones required in metabolism.
    Nutritional Requirements
    The objective of a proper diet is to achieve and maintain a desirable body composition and a high potential for physical and mental work. The daily dietary requirements for essential nutrients, including energy sources, depend on age, sex, height, weight, and metabolic and physical activity.

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