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SONICS AND ULTRASONICS

SONICS AND ULTRASONICS IN ENDODONTICS

  • CONTENTS
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EVOLUTION
  • AN INSIGHT
  •   The Physics behind Ultrasonics
  •   The Physics behind Sonics
  •   BIOPHYSICAL EFFECTS OF ENDOSONICS
  •   Cavitation
  •   Acoustic Streaming
  • IRRIGANTS
  • ULTRASONICS
  • SONICS
  • A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
  • Shaping of Root Canals
  • Canal Debridement
  • Root end Preparation
  • Endodontic Re-treatment
  • Intraradicular Post Removal
  • Silver Point Removal
  • Gutta Percha Removal
  • Sealer Placement and Gutta Percha Obturation
  • CONCLUSION
  • The Physics behind Ultrasonics
  • There are two basic methods of producing ultrasound
  • The first is Magnetostriction, which converts electromagnetic energy into mechanical energy
  • A stack of magnetostrictive metal in the handpiece is subjected to a standing and alternating magnetic field, as a result of which, vibrations are produced
  • The second method is based on the Piezo-electric principle
  • A crystal is used which changes dimensions when an electrical charge is applied
  • This crystal deformation is converted to mechanical oscillation with no production of heat
  • The magnetostrictive units have the disadvantage, when compared with the
  • Piezo-electric, that the stack generates heat and must be cooled
  • This means tubing is required to carry water to the hand piece, and if the irrigant is sodium hypo chloride, then the water has to be led away by more tubing, after cooling the stack
  • A separate source by more tubing carries the sodium hypochlorite to the head of the hand piece
  • Both these types work at ultrasonic frequencies and exhibit similar patterns of the oscillation

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