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TYPES OF HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS

  • In type I hypersensitivity an individual who has previously been sensitized to an antigen mounts a strong immunological response in their next encounter.
  • It is caused by an antigen binding with a mast cell or basophil with pre-formed immunoglobulin E (IgE), which creates a cascade response involving the release of histamine, serotonin and other vasoactive substances.

 

  • These agents also attract other white blood cells causing further reactions. Depending on the severity of the response these substances alter blood vessels, smooth muscle and are pro-inflammatory.
  • These can take the form of local or systemic responses. Local responses include, nasal congestion and discharge, wheal and flare, and hives.
  • Major systemic reactions include difficulty in breathing and vascular permeability.

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