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Upper Airway constiction and its Effects on Growth & Develop..

  •                                CONTENTS
  • 1.HISTORY
  • 2.UPPER AIRWAY STRUCTURE – PARTS
  • 3.RESPIRATORY MECHANICS
  • 4.CAUSES OF UPPER AIRWAY CONSTRICTION
  • 5.NASO – REPIRATORY FUNCTION AND CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH
  • 6.HEAD POSTURE
  • 7.DIAGNOSIS
  • 8. HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
  • 9.CLASSIFICATION OF RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTION
  • 10.LONG FACE SYNDROME
  • 11.MOUTHBREATHING AND DENTOFACIAL DEFORMITIES
  • 12.ROLE OF TONSILS AND ADENOIDS
  • 13.RHINITIS
  • 14.SEQUELA OF UPPER AIRWAY CONSTRICTION
  • 15.MUSCLES IN IMPAIRED NASAL AIRWAY
  • 16.INVESTIGATIONS
  • 17.TREATMENT
  •                   ADENOIDECTOMY AND TONSILLECTOMY
  •                   SEPTOPLASTY & TURBINATE RESECTION
  •                   RHINITIS
  •                  ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT – Myofunctional appliances
  •                   RAPID MAXILLARY EXPANSION
  •                  ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY
  • 18.ROLE OF ORTHODONTISTS
  • 19.CONCLUSION
    • A complete examination of the head and neck is performed.
    • Resting mouth position is noted.
    • “Adenoid facies” is characterized by an open mouth, dull facial appearance, and short upper lip. This is nonspecific for chronic nasal obstruction.
    • Other craniofacial anomalies may be associated with these symptoms including cleft palate, Down syndrome, etc.
    • Tonsillar hypertrophy, macroglossia and oropharyngeal masses should be evaluated
    • The nasal cavity was inspected for the presence of secretions, edema and erythema of the nasal mucosa .
    • The ears should be evaluated as otitis media certainly is associated with nasal obstruction problems.
    • Bony nasal anomalies, external masses, pits, etc. should be evaluated.

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