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Upper Airway constiction and its Effects on Growth & Development-Dr-Anusha

    •                                CONTENTS
    • 1.HISTORY
    • 2.UPPER AIRWAY STRUCTURE – PARTS
    • 3.RESPIRATORY MECHANICS
    • 4.CAUSES OF UPPER AIRWAY CONSTRICTION
    • 5.NASO – REPIRATORY FUNCTION AND CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH
    • 6.HEAD POSTURE
    • 7.DIAGNOSIS
    • 8. HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
    • 9.CLASSIFICATION OF RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTION
    • 10.LONG FACE SYNDROME
    • 11.MOUTHBREATHING AND DENTOFACIAL DEFORMITIES
    • 12.ROLE OF TONSILS AND ADENOIDS
    • 13.RHINITIS
    • 14.SEQUELA OF UPPER AIRWAY CONSTRICTION
    • 15.MUSCLES IN IMPAIRED NASAL AIRWAY
    • 16.INVESTIGATIONS
    • 17.TREATMENT
    •                   ADENOIDECTOMY AND TONSILLECTOMY
    •                   SEPTOPLASTY & TURBINATE RESECTION
    •                   RHINITIS
    •                  ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT – Myofunctional appliances
    •                   RAPID MAXILLARY EXPANSION
    •                  ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY
    • 18.ROLE OF ORTHODONTISTS
    • 19.CONCLUSION
  • Human beings are normally nasal breathers. The nasal and oral cavities serve as pathways for respiratory airflow. Ordinarily, the inspiratory and expiratory airstreams are channeled through the nose because the mouth is usually closed. However, in some individuals, because of nasal airway inadequacy or habit, the oral cavity becomes the predominant route for the passage of respiratory airflow.

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