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urine examination

  • A significant amount of information can be obtained through the examination of urine.
  • Careful examination enables the detection of disease processes intrinsic to the urinary system, both functional and structural.
  • The progression or regression of various lesions.
  • Furthermore, systemic disease processes, such as endocrine or metabolic abnormalities, can be detected through the recognition of abnormal amounts of disease specific metabolites excreted in the urine.


  • Whenever there is defect in carbohydrate metabolism or absorption or an inadequate amount of carbohydrate in the diet, the body compensates by metabolizing increasing amount of fatty acids.
  • When this increase is large, ketone bodies, the product of incomplete fat metabolism, begin to appear in blood and then in urine.

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